Proceedings of the Mountain Lion Workshops
Following are the Table of Contents from each of the Mountain Lion Workshops.   To view the full proceedings document in Adobe PDF format click on the title at the top of the Table of Contents. 

Transactions of the Mountain Lion Workshop
Nugget - Sparks, Nevada - January 13 & 14, 1976
Welcome 1
Introduction 3
Attendance Roster 4
Agenda 7
Discussion Sessions: 9
Review of Past & Current Mountain Lion Studies
Biology and Life History 38
Population Inventory Techniques 92
Harvest 114
Depredation 145
Mountain Lion Population Modeling 177
Research and Management Needs 192
I - Aging Techniques Committee Report 197
II - Standardization of Terms and Measurements 205
Committee Report - Memorandum # 1 and 2

Proceedings of the Second Mountain Lion Workshop
Zion National Park - 27-29 November 1984
Status Reports Page
Alberta 1
Arizona 9
A Lion for all Seasons 13
California 23
Colorado 27
Florida 29
Idaho 37
Montana 39
Nevada 44
New Mexico 49
Oregon 53
Texas 56
Utah 60
Washington 80
Wyoming 88
Questionnaire Responses 93
Tables sunnnarizing responses 95
Research Reports
Alberta 117
Arizona 120
Lion Track Counts in California 130
The Role of the Puma in a Nonmigratorv Large Mamal Community in the Diablo Range of California 134
The Effect of Mountain Lion Predation on the North Kings Deer Herd in California 138
Chile 141
Colorado 147
Florida 149
Reintroducing Orphaned Mountain Lion Kittens into the Wild 167
Mountain Lions as a Mortality Factor in Bobcats 170
Montana 172
New Mexico 174
Oregon 176
Utah 186
Wyoming 189
Session Summaries
Pursuit Seasons 191
Predation-Depredation 204
Current Techniques Uspd in the Rpsparch of Pumas 216
Harvest Strategies 230
List of Participants 267

Proceedings of the Third Mountain Lion Workshop
December 6 - 8, 1988 - Prescott, Arizona
Table of Contents Page
Welcoming Address  1
Keynote Address 3
State and Provincial Status Reports 5
Cougar Hunting Regulations and Harvest in Alberta Between 1973 and 1987 6
Status of Mountain Lions in Ariwna 7
Tracking Arizona's Other Big Cat 10
The Status and Management of Cougar in British Columbia 1988 11
The Status of Mountain Lions in California 15
Status of the Mountain Lion in Colorado 19
Status of the Mountain Lion in New Mexico 24
Status of Mountain Lions in Nevada  26
Status of the Mountain Lion in Texas 30
Status of Cougar in Utah, 1988 32
Status of the Cougar in Washington 35
Status of the Mountain Lion in Wyoming 38
Legal Problems in Mountain Lion Management 41
Mountain Lion Law Enforcement Problems in Ariwna 42
Legal Challenge to Mountain Lion Hunting in California 42
Research Reports 43
Preliminary Results: Survey on Mountain Lion Research Methods 44
Population Ecology of Cougars in Southwestern Alberta 47
Predation Rates of Cougar Within the Junction Wildlife Management Area 48
Cougar Ecology in Southeastern British Columbia 48
Method to Standardize the Procedure for Measuring Mountain Lion Tracks 49
Panther Research Update for Southwest Florida 52
Florida Panther Reintroduction Feasibility Study 52
Feeding Ecology of the Patagonian Puma (Felis concolor patagonia) in Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile 53
Dynamics of a Mountain Lion Population in Central Idaho Over a 20-Year Period 54
Demographic, Genetic, and Reproductive Peril of the Endangered Florida Panther (Felis concolor coryi) 55
The Ecology of the Mountain Lion (Felis concolor missoulensis) in the North Yellowstone Ecosystem 56
Mountain Lion Population Dynamics (Utah) 56 Dynamics of Home Range Size of Unhunted Mountain Lions (Felis concolor hippolestes) in Southwestern Colorado 57
Survival in an Unhunted Mountain Lion (Felis concolor hippolestes) Population in Southwestern Colorado 57
Differentiating Mountain Lion and DogTracks 58
Population Monitoring and Harvest Strategies 65
Why Lions Need to be Hunted 66
Techniques for Monitoring Mountain Lion Population Levels 69
Age Determination in Cougar from Cementum Annuli Counts of Tooth Sections 71
Mountain Lion Density and Movement in the Central Sierra Nevada 72
Movement and Survival of 14 Month Old Orphaned Mountain Lion Kittens 73
A Non Invasive Method for Monitoring Mountain Lion Population Trends in Roadless Areas 73
Managing with Potential for Lion Attacks Against Humans 74
Ecology of an Unexploited Cougar Population in a Desert Environment 77
Results of Facilitated Session , 79
Summary of Results of Facilitated Sessions 80
Directory of Authors and Attendees 84

Mountain Lion-Human Interaction Symposium and Workshop
April 24-26, 1991 - Denver, Colorado
Preface vi
Acknowledgments vi
Workshop Introduction Robert J Tulley 1
Welcome and Overview Perry D Olsen 2
Cougar Attacks on Humans in the United States and Canada Paul Beier 3
Summary: Mountain Lion-Human Interaction Questionnaires,1991 Katherine A Green 4
Human-Lion Interactions in Boulder County, Colorado: Past, Present, and Future James C Halfpenny Michael R Sanders and Kristin A McGrath 10
Human-Lion Interactions in Boulder County Colorado: Behaviorial Patterns Michael R Sanders and James C Halfpenny 17
Development of a Database for Analysis of Information About Lion Sightings and Lion-Human Interactions Katherine A Green 18
Frequency of Mountain Lion Sightings by Residents and Employees of a Housing Development Allen E Anderson 19
Mountain Lion Use of an Area of High Recreational Development in Big Bend National Park Texas Toni K Ruth Jane M Packard Douglas S Neighbor and J Raymond Skiles 20
Population Characteristics of the Mountain Lion in the Diablo Range, California Rick A Hopkins and Reginald H Barrett 21
Cougars, Corridors, and Conservation Paul Beier 23
The Role of Local, County, State, and Federal Agencies in the Prevention of Conflict with Large Predators Robert Dettmann 24
Live Trapping Mountain Lion Douglas S Neighbor Toni K Ruth, J Raymond Skiles, Jr, and B P McKinney, Jr 25
Responses of Translocated Mountain Lions to Human Disturbance Robert C Beldon, Bruce W Hagedorn, and William B Frankenberger 26
Cougar Habitat Selection in South-central Utah Steven P Laing and Frederick G Lindzey 27
Cougars in Residential Areas and Evasive Tactics to Prevent Injury Dennis W Pemble 38
Hugh Glass Revisited: the Backcountry Medical Concerns of Puma Attack Jay W Tischendoif and Buck Tilton 39
Legal Aspects of Encounters on Federal Lands and in State Programs Gayle Mangus 43
Planning a Response to Mountain Lion Incidents J Raymond Skiles 45
The Role of the Media and State Wildlife Agency: Public Relations in Interactions Todd Malmsbury 46
Room for Me and Mountain Lion-Management Challenges of the Future Susan C Morse 47
Needs for Mountain Lion Research and Special Management Studies Frederick G Lindzey 52
A Synopsis of the Symposium and Challenges for the Future Maurice G Hornocker 54
Identifying and Interpreting Mountain Lion Signs in the Field James C Halfpenny 57
Evaluation of a Cougar Population Estimator Based on Probability Sampling Walter D Van Sickle and Frederick G Lindzey 58
The Use of Track Counts for Mountain Lion Population Census K Shawn Smallwood and E Lee Fitzhugh 59
Results, 1991 Questionnaire on Damage to Livestock by Mountain Lion Robert J Tully 68
Mountain Lion Damage to Property in California Terry M Mansfield 75
Lion Damage to Pets in Urban Colorado Springs, Colorado Robert B Davies 79
Managing Lions in a Changing Social Environment Frederick G Lindzey 81
Bridging Philosophy and Management for Lions and People Delwin E Benson 83
Increasing Mountain Lion Populations and Human-Mountain Lion Interactions in Montana Keith E Aune 86
Age and Sex Profiles for Lions Involved in Human-Lion Encounters, Boulder County Colorado James C Halfpenny, Michael R Sanders Katherine A Green, and Kristi Coughlin 95
Mountain Lions and the Bambi Syndrome, Walter E Howard 96
Appendix A Agenda 99
Appendix B Registrants 101

Proceedings of the Fifth Mountain Lion Workshop
27 February - 1 March 1996 - San Diego, California
Preface vi
Acknowledgments vii
Memorial 1
Allen Anderson 2
Knut Atkinson 4
Program 6
Research Reports 13
Status of the Mountain Lion in Florida: 1996 Robert C Belden, Tom H Logan 14
Status and Management of Mountain Lions in Nevada Mike K Cox, San Stiver 17
Sources and Distribution of Proposition 117 Funds E Lee Fitzhugh 19
Puma Behaviors During Encounters With Humans and Appropriate Human Responses E Lee Fitzhugh, David P Fjelline 26
The Potential for Catastrophic Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Populations of Mountain Lions in the Western United States Janet E Foley 29
Standardizing Photographs of Puma Tracks for Digital Processing Steve Galentine, EL Fitzhugh 37
Mountain Lion Research in Texas: Past, Present, and Future Louis A Harveson, Michael E Tewes, Nova J Silvy, Jimmy Rutledge 40
Cougar-Human Interactions in British Columbia D Hebert, D Lay 44
Contributions to the Identification of Puma Concolor Concolor Marcelo Mazzolli, CB Ryan 46
Effects and Patterns of Mountain Lion Predation of Livestock on Small and Medium Sized Properties in Santa Catarina, Brazil Marcelo Mazzolli, C Bartlet-Ryan, M Graipel 54
Assessing Subspecies Status: A Holistic Evaluation of the Yuma Mountain Lion Donald E Mcivor, John A Bissonette 62
The Status of Mountain Lions in Texas William B Russ 69
Photographic Recording of Mountain Lion Tracks K Shawn Smallwood Melissa Grigione 74
The Fort Huachuca-Canelo Hills Track Count: A Model for Volunteer Based Mountain Lion Monitoring HS Stone, D Coblentz, S Morse, K Hansen, HG Shaw 76
Abstracts 83
Diurnal Bedding Habitat of Mountain Lions in Northeast Oregon James Akenson, Mark Henjum, Ted Craddock 84
Feasibility of Using Captive-Raised Mountain Lions for Establishing Populations Robert C Belden, J Walter Mccown 84
Population Demographics of an Exploited Mountain Lion Population Stan C Cunningham 85
Prey Availability and Selection by Mountain Lions in the Aravaipa-Klondyke Area of Arizona Stan C Cunningham 85
Mountain Lion Food Habits in a Desert Environment: Preliminary Results Mike Elmer, KA Logan, LL Sweanor, MG Hornocker 85
Dna from Mountain Lion Scat: Preliminary Studies Holly Ernest, Michael Syvanen, Walter Boyce 86
Testing of 'A Rigorous Technique for Identifying Individual Mountain Lions (Puma Concolor) by Their Tracks' Melissa M Grigione 86
Preliminary Evaluation of Florida Panther Genetic Restoration and Management Kenneth G Johnson, Tom H Logan, E Darrell Land, Mark A Lotz, Michael R Dunbar, Roy Mcbride, Deborah K Jansen, Oron L Bass 87
Spatial-Temporal Analyses of Mountain Lions in the Sierra Nevada: Looking for Patterns and "Bulls-Eyes" Amid the Mess Eric R Loft 87
Effects of Cougar (Puma Concolor) Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis Mexicana) in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico Kenneth A Logan, LL Sweanor, MG Hornocker 88
Survival and Mortality of Cougars (Puma Concolor) in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico Kenneth A Logan, LL Sweanor, MG Hornocker 88
Female Mountain Lion (Puma Concolor) Home Ranges in the Southern Santa Ana Mountains, California W Douglas Padley 89
Mountain Lion (Puma Concolor) Vocalizations in the Santa Ana Mountains, California W Douglas Padley 89
Social Encounters Among Mountain Lions (Puma Concolor) in the Santa Ana Mountains, California W Douglas Padley 89
Movements and Diets of Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona MF Peirce,JL Cashman 90
Mountain Lion-Human and Mountain Lion-Livestock Incidents in MontanaShawn J Riley, Keith E Aune 91
Developing an Adaptive Management Program for Mountain Lions (Puma Concolor) in Montana Shawn J Riley, Richard A Malecki 91
Mountain Lion Predation on Bighorn Sheep in the Peninsular Ranges of California Esther Rubin, Walter Boyce, Charles Hayes, Steve Torres, Mark Jorgensen 92
Orientation, Movements, and Survival of Translocated Cougars in New Mexico TK Ruth, KA Logan, LL Sweanor, MG Hornocker, LJ Temple 92
Interactions Between Cougars and Wolves (And A Bear Or Two) in the North Fork of the Flathead River, Montana TK Ruth, MG Hornocker 93
Study and Interpretive Design Effects on Mountain Lion Density Estimates K Shawn Smallwood, Bruce Wilcox 93
Ten Years of California Mountain Lion Track Survey K Shawn Smallwood, Bruce Wilcox 94
Dispersal of Cougars (Puma Concolor) in Metapopulation Dynamics Linda L Sweanor, KA Logan, MG Hornocker 94
Reproductive Biology of Female Cougars (Puma Concolor) in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico Linda L Sweanor, KA Logan, MG Hornocker 95
Societal Preferences for Mountain Lion Management Along Colorado's Front Range Harry C Zinn, Michael J Manfredo, Jim Jones, Linda Sikorowski 95
State Status Reports 97
Alberta 98
Arizona 100
British Columbia 102
California 104
Florida 106
Idaho 108
Montana 110
Nevada 112
New Mexico 114
Oregon 116
Texas 118

Proceedings of the Sixth Mountain Lion Workshop
December 12 - 14 , 2000 - Holiday Inn Riverwalk - San Antonio, Texas
Schedule 1
Research and Status Reports 7
Status Report on Mountain Lions in Arizona 8
Status Report on Mountain Lions in Nebraska 11
Status of the Mountain Lion in New Mexico, 1971-2000 14
Status Report of Mountain Lions in South Dakota 22
Characteristics of Mountain Lion Mortalities in the Black Hills, South Dakota 25
Wyoming Mountain Lion Status Report 2001 30
Field Evidence of Cougars in Eastern North America 34
Managing the Captive Mountain Lion Population in North American Zoos 40
A Spatial Evaluation of Cougar-Human Encounters in US National Parks: 43
The Cases of Glacier and Big Bend National Parks 51
Reproduction and Dispersal of Mountain Lions in Southern Texas 52
Estimating Sex Reporting Bias in Mountain Lions Using Dna Analyses 52
Using GPS Collars to Estimate Mountain Lion Predation Rates and Selection of Large Prey 53
Viral Diseases and Cougar Demography 53
A Test of Optimal Foraging: Mountain Lions and Mule Deer 54
Mountain Lion Food Habits in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico 54
An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Efficacy of Cougar Population Estimators 55
Mountain Lion-Human Interactions in Yosemite National Park 55
A Survey of Recent Accounts of the Mountain Lion in Arkansas 56
Investigating Cougar Attacks on Humans: the British Columbia Approach 56
A Phylogeographic Study of Pumas (Puma Concolor) Using Mitochondrial Dna Markers and Microsatellites 57
Two Simple Methods of Handling Radio-Location Error for Wide-Ranging Animals in Large Complex Study Areas 57
Changing Dynamics of Puma Attacks on Humans 58
Lions and Tigers and Cows: Jaguar Densities in Sonoran Cattle Country 58
Mountain Lion Population Estimation Using Aerial Sampling of Tracks in Snow 59
Mountain Lion Predation on Elk Calves in North-Central Idaho 59
What Is Revealed in a Mountain Lions Heel: Using Heel Shape to Ascertain Identity 60
Status of the Puma in the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert 60
Mountain Lion Use of Open, Edge, and Forest Habitat: Evidence for Optimal Foraging? 61
Are Exotic Pumas Breeding in Britain? 61
Regional Scale Cougar Habitat Modelling in Southwestern Alberta, Canada 62
Florida Panthers in a Wetland Ecosystem 62
Mountain Lion Predation on Endangered Woodland Caribou, Mule Deer, and White-Tailed Deer 63
Mountain Lion Home Range Use in a Fragmented Landscape 64
Habitat Factors Affecting Hunting Success of Cougars and Wolves in Northwestern Montana 64
Florida Panther Genetic Restoration: A Status Report 65
Recovery of the Florida Panther: Accomplishments and Future Needs 65
Aging Cougars in the Field from Birth to Death 66
Energetics of Free Roaming Mountain Lions in the Great Basin 67
Habitat Composition of Successful Kill Sites for Lions in Southeastern Idaho and Northwestern Utah 67
Long Term Population Trends of Mountain Lions in Southeastern Idaho and Northwestern Utah 68
Regulating Hunting of Mountain Lions: A Metapopulation Approach 68
The Application of a Richards Curve Growth Model to Cougars in the Northern Great Basin 69
Use of Dispersal Distance to Assess the Long Term Conservation of Mountain Lions 69
Ecology and Management of the "European Mountain Lion" (Lynx Lynx) 70
The Relationship Between Dispersal and Gene Flow Among Populations of Mountain Lions (Puma Concolor) in Fragmented Habitat 70
Criteria Used to Implement Public Safety Cougar Removals With the Use of Dogs 71
Prey Items of Mountain Lions in a Forestry System in Brazil 72
Density and Resilience of Mountain Lions in a Forestry System in Brazil 72
The Effects of Predator Control on Mountain Lions in Texas 72
Predation Rates of Female Mountain Lions in Northeast Oregon 73
Prey Selection of Female Mountain Lions in Northeast Oregon 73
Ecology of the Mountain Lion on Big Bend Ranch State Park in Trans-Pecos Texas 74
Dispersal Characteristics of Juvenile Mountain Lions in Southwest Oregon 74
Texas Mountain Lion Status Report 75
Home Ranges and Movements of Cougars in a Non-Hunted Population in Western Washington 75
Historical Biogeography of Wild Cats and Their Environment in Texas 76
A Case of Mountain Lion Limiting an Elk Population: the Green River Watershed, Washington 76
Mountain Lion Predation on Cattle in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México 77
An Evaluation of Cougar Management Strategies in Utah 77
Cougars and Desert Bighorn Sheep in the Fra Cristobal Range: Scale, Geography, and Seasonality 78

Proceedings of the Seventh Mountain Lion Workshop
15-17 May 2003 - the Virginian Lodge - Jackson, Wyoming
Preface vii
In Memory Ian Ross viii
Mountain Lion Status Reports Session Chair: Dave Moody, Wyoming Game and Fish Department Status of Mountain Lion Populations in Arizona Brian F Wakeling 1
California Mountain Lion Status Report Doug Updike 6
Colorado Mountain Lion Status Report Jerry Apker 14
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Status Report Mark Lotz and E Darrell Land 18
Idaho Mountain Lion Status Report Steve Nadeau 25
Montana Mountain Lion Status Report Rich Desimone and Rose Jaffe 29
Nevada Mountain Lion Status Report Russell Woolstenhulme 31
New Mexico Mountain Lion Status Report Rick Winslow 39
State of South Dakota Mountain Lion Status Report Mike Kintigh 43
Mountain Lion Status Report for Texas John Young 49
Utah Mountain Lion Status Report Craig R Mclaughlin 51
Washington Cougar Status Report Richard A Beausoleil, Donald A Martorello, and Rocky D Spencer 60
Wyoming Mountain Lion Status Report Scott A Becker, Daniel D Bjornlie, and David S Moody 64
Cryptic Cougars - Perspectives on the Puma in the Eastern, Midwestern, and Great Plains Regions of North America Jay W Tischendorf 71
Mountain Lion Status Report: British Columbia - Abstract Matt Austin 87
Improving Our Understanding of Mountain Lion Management Trends: the Value of Consistent Multi-State Record Keeping - Abstract Christopher M Papouchis and Lynn Michelle Cullens 88
Mountain Lion Interactions With Humans and Livestock Session Chair: Kenneth Logan, Colorado Division of Wildlife Iv Lessening the Impact of a Puma Attack on a Human E Lee Fitzhugh, Sabine Schmid-Holmes, Marc W Kenyon, and Kathy Etling 89
A Conceptual Model and Appraisal of Existing Research Related to Interactions Between Humans and Pumas - Abstract David J Mattson, Jan V Hart, Paul Beier, and Jesse Millen-Johnson 104
Relationships Between Land Tenure System, Mountain Lion Protection Status, and Livestock Depredation Rate - Abstract Marcelo Mazzolli 105
Mountain Lion Movements and Persistence in a Fragmented, Urban Landscape in Southern California - Abstract Seth PD Riley, Raymond M Sauvajot, and Eric C York 106
Puma Responses to Close Encounters With Researchers - Abstract Linda L Sweanor, Kenneth A Logan, and Maurice G Hornocker 107
Mountain Lion Genetics and Disease Session Chair: Deedra Hawk, Wyoming Game and Fish Department Preliminary Results of Florida Panther Genetic Analyses - Abstract Warren E Johnson, Darrell Land, Jan Mortenson, Melody Roelke-Parker, and Stephen J O'brien 108
Genetic Structure of Cougar Populations Across the Wyoming Basin: Metapopulation Or Megapopulation - Abstract Chuck R Anderson, Jr, Fred G Lindzey, and Dave B Mcdonald 109
Ecological Significance and Evolution of a Common Cougar Retrovirus - Abstract Roman Biek and Mary Poss 110
Mountain Lion Ecology Session Chair: Fred Lindzey, Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Characteristics of Mountain Lion Bed, Cache and Kill Sites in Northeastern Oregon James J Akenson, M Cathy Nowak, Mark G Henjum, and Gary W Witmer 111
Impact of Edge Habitat on Home Range Size in Pumas - Abstract John W Laundré and Lucina Hernández 119
Effect of Roads on Habitat Use by Cougars - Abstract Dorothy M Fecske, Jonathan A Jenks, Frederick G Lindzey, and Steven L Griffin 120
Ecology of Sympatric Pumas and Jaguars in Northwestern Mexico - Abstract Carlos A Lopez Gonzalez and Samia E Carrillo Percastegui 121
Cougar Ecology and Cougar-Wolf Interactions in Yellowstone National Park: A Guild Approach to Large Carnivore Conservation - Abstract Toni K Ruth, Polly C Buotte, Howard B Quigley, and Maurice G Hornocker 122
Evaluation of Habitat Factors That Affect the Abundance of Pumas in the Chihuahuan Desert - Abstract Joel Loredo Salazar, Lucina Hernández, and John W Laundré 123
Mountain Lion/Prey Dynamics Session Chair: Steve Cain, Grand Teton National Park Are Pumas Opportunistic Scavengers? - Abstract Jim W Bauer, Kenneth A Logan, Linda L Sweanor, and Walter M Boyce 124
Cougar-Induced Indirect Effects: Does the Risk of Predation Influence Ungulate Foraging Behavior on the National Bison Range? - Abstract David M Choate, Gary E Belovsky, and Michael L Wolfe 125
V Cougar Predation on Prey in Yellowstone National Park: A Preliminary Comparison Pre- and Post-Wolf Reestablishment - Abstract Toni K Ruth, Polly C Buotte, Kerry M Murphy, and Maurice G Hornocker 126
Four Decades of Cougar-Ungulate Dynamics in the Central Idaho Wilderness - Abstract Holly A Akenson, James J Akenson, Howard B Quigley, and Maurice G Hornocker 127
Cougar Total Predation Response to Differing Prey Densities: A Proposed Experiment to Test the Apparent Competition Hypothesis - Abstract Hugh Robinson, Robert Wielgus, Hilary Cruickshank, and Catherine Lambert 128
Mountain Lion Population Monitoring and Management Session Chair: Kerry Murphy, Yellowstone National Park Characteristics of Cougar Harvest With and Without the Use of Dogs Donald A Martorello and Richard A Beausoleil 129
Response by Three Large Carnivores to Recreational Big Game Hunting Along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness Boundary - Presentation Only Howard B Quigley, Toni K Ruth, Douglas W Smith, Mark A Haroldson, Polly C Buotte, Charles C Schwartz, Steve Cherry, Kerry M Murphy, Dan Tyers, and Kevin Frey Defining and Delineating De Facto Refugia: A Preliminary Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Cougar Harvest in Utah and Implications for Conservation - Abstract David C Stoner and Michael L Wolfe 136
Monitoring Changes in Cougar Sex/Age Structure With Changes in Abundance As an Index to Population Trend - Abstract Chuck R Anderson, Jr and Fred G Lindzey 137
Management of Cougars (Puma Concolor) in the Western United States - Abstract Deanna Dawn, Michael Kutilek, Rich Hopkins, Sulehka Anand, and Steve Torres 138
Dynamics and Viability of a Cougar Population in the Pacific Northwest - Abstract Catherine Lambert, Robert B Wielgus, Hugh S Robinson, Donald D Katnik, Hilary Cruickshank, and Ross Clarke 139
Project Cat (Cougars and Teaching): Integrating Science, Schools and Community in Development Planning - Abstract Gary M Koehler and Evelyn Nelson 140
Monitoring Mountain Lions in the Tucson Mountain District of Saguaro National Park, Arizona, Using Noninvasive Techniques - Abstract Lisa Haynes, Don Swann, and Melanie Culver 141
Estimating Cougar Abundance Using Probability Sampling: an Evaluation of Transect Versus Block Design - Abstract Chuck R Anderson, Jr, Fred G Lindzey, and Nate Nibbelink 142
Evaluating Mountain Lion Monitoring Techniques in the Garnet Mountains of West Central Montana - Abstract Rich Desimone 143
Presence and Movements of Lactating and Maternal Female Cougars: Implications for State Hunting Regulations - Abstract Toni K Ruth, Kerry M Murphy, and Polly C Buotte 144
Mountain Lion Conservation Session Chair: Christopher Papouchis, Mountain Lion Foundation Mystery, Myth and Legend: the Politics of Cougar Management in the New Millennium - Abstract Rick A Hopkins 145
Vi Reconciling Science and Politics in Puma Management in the West: New Mexico As A Template - Abstract Kenneth A Logan, Linda L Sweanor, and Maurice G Hornocker 146
Community-Based Conservation of Mountain Lions - Abstract Lynn Michelle Cullens and Christopher Papouchis 147
Puma Management in Western North America: A 100-Year Retrospective - Abstract Steven Torres, Heather Keough, and Deanna Dawn 148
Using Cougars to Design A Wilderness Network in California's South Coast Ecoregion - Abstract Paul Beier and Kristeen Penrod 149
Mountain Lions and Bighorn Sheep: Facing the Challenges - Abstract Christopher M Papouchis and John D Wehausen 150
Poster Presentations Session Chair: Scott Becker, Wyoming Game and Fish Department Factors Affecting Dispersal in Young Male Pumas John W Laundré and Lucina Hernández 151
Cougar Exploitation Levels and Landscape Configurations: Implications for Demographic Structure and Metapopulation Dynamics - Abstract David C Stoner and Michael L Wolfe 161
Assessing GPS Radiotelemetry Reliability in Cougar Habitat - Abstract Trish Griswold, James Briggs, Gary Koehler, and Students At Cle Elum-Roslyn School District 162
Using GPS Collars to Determine Cougar Kill Rates, Estimate Home Ranges, and Examine Cougar-Cougar Interactions -Abstract Polly C Buotte and Toni K Ruth 163
Functional Response of Cougars and Prey Availability in Northeastern Washington - Abstract Hilary S Cruickshank, Hugh S Robinson, Catherine Lambert, Robert B Wielgus 164
What Does Ten Years (1993-2002) of Mountain Lion Observation Data Reveal About Mountain Lion-Human Interactions Within Redwood National and State Parks - Abstract Gregory W Holm 165
Depredation Trends in California - Abstract Sarah Reed, Christopher M Papouchis, and Lynn Michelle Cullens 166
The Distribution of Perceived Encounters With Non-Native Cats in South and West Wales, Uk: Relationship to Modeled Habitat Suitability - Abstract AB Smith, FE Street Perrott, and T Hooper 167
Puma Activity and Movements in a Human-Dominated Landscape: Cuyamaca Rancho State Park and Adjacent Lands in Southern California - Abstract Linda L Sweanor, Kenneth A Logan, Jim W Bauer, and Walter M Boyce 168
Modeling Offspring Sex Ratios and Growth of Cougars - Abstract Diana M Ghikas, Martin Jalkotzy, Ian Ross, Ralph Schmidt, and Shane A Richards 169
Mountain Lion Survey Techniques in Northern Idaho: A Three-Fold Approach - Abstract Craig G White, Peter Zager, and Lisette Waits 170
Mountain Lions in South Dakota: Results of a 2002 Public Opinion Survey - Abstract Larry M Gigliotti, Dorothy M Fecske, and Jonathan A Jenks 171
Critical Cougar Crossing and Bay Area Regional Planning - Abstract Michele Korpos 172
List of Participants 173

Proceedings of the Eighth Mountain Lion Workshop
May 17-19, 2005 Icicle Inn, Leavenworth, Washington
Table of Contents Page
Preface Richard A. Beausoleil ix
2005 Northwest Mountain Lion Status Reports Session Chair. Richard:. Beausoleil, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
British Columbia Mountain Lion Status Report - Abstract Matt Austin 3
Washington Mountain Lion Status Report Richard A. Beausoleil, Donald A. Martorello, and Rocky D. Spencer 4
Oregon Mountain Lion Status Report Donald G. Whittaker 11
Idaho Mountain Lion Status Report Steve Nadeau 17
Montana Mountain Lion Status Report Richard DeSimone, Victoria Edwards, and Bill Semmens 22
Wyoming Mountain Lion Status Report David S. Moody, Daniel D. Bjornlie, and Charles R. Anderson 26
South Dakota Mountain Lion Status Report Mike Kintigh 34
2005 Southwest & Florida Mountain Lion Status Reports Session Chair. Jerry A. Apker, Colorao Division of Wildlife
California Mountain Lion Status Report Doug Updike 41
Nevada Mountain Lion Status Report Russell Woolstenhulmec 49
Colorado Mountain Lion Status Report Jerry A. Apker 57
Arizona Mountain Lion Status Report Samuel P. Barber 65
New Mexico Mountain Lion Status Report Rick Winslow 70
Florida Mountain Lion Status Report Mark A. Lotz 73
Mountain Lion Population Monitoring
Session Chair Kenneth Logan, Colorado Division of Wildlife
Using DNA to Estimate Cougar Populations in Washington: A Collaborative Approach - Abstract Richard A. Beausoleil, Kenneth 1. Warheit, and Donald A. Martorello 81
Update: Evaluating Mountain Lion Monitoring Techniques in the Garnet Mountains of West Central Montana - Abstract Richard M. DeSimone, Bill J. Semmens, and Victoria L. Edwards 83
Potential for Florida Panther Range Expansion Into Central Florida - Abstract Robert C. Belden and Roy T. McBride 85
Cougar Tracking in the Northeast: Years of Research Finally Rewarded Marc Gauthier, Clement Lanthier, Francois-Joseph Lapointe, Le Duing Lang, Nathalie Tessier, and Virginia Stroeher 86
Political Influences of Mountain Lion Management Session Chair- Chris Capouchis, Mountain Lion Foundation A Cat Race Tale of Houndsman, Biologist's, Administrators, Committees and Lawmakers in North Western Montana - A History of Montana HB 142 - Abstract Jim Williams 91
Political and Socio-Economic Influences on Cougar Management in Washington State: Post 1-655 Brian N. Kertson 92
A Case Study of Mountain Lion-Human Interaction in Southern Arizona Gerry Perry and James C. deVos Jr. 104
Mountain Lions in Urban-Suburban Environments
Session Chair- Gary Koehlr, Washington (Department of Fish and Wildlife
Land-Cover Characteristics of Cougar / Human Interactions in and Around an Urban Landscape Michelle L. Shuey 117
A New Paradigm for Cougar Conservation and "Management" in the 21 S' Century - - Abstract Chris Papouchis, Rick A. Hopkins, and Deanna Dawn 127
Managing Public Fear and Response to Urban / Suburban Cougar Incidents Rick R. Parmer 128
Aversive Conditioning of Florida Panthers by Combining Painful Experiences With Instinctively Threatening Sounds - Abstract Roy McBride, Deborah K. Jansen, Rocky Mcbride, and Steve R. Schulze 136
Feline Leukemia Virus in the Florida Panther: Investigation, Management, and Monitoring - Abstract Mark W. Cunningham 137
Mountain Lion-Livestock Conflict and Management Session Chair-Rodger Woodruf - Wildlife Services
Cougar Impact on Livestock Ranches in the Canon De Santa Elena Chihuahua, Mexico Aaron Bueno-Cabrera, Lucina Hernandez-Garcia, John Laundre, Armando Contreras-Hernandez, and Harley G. Shaw 141
Assessing Puma Depredation Risk in California's Western Sierra Nevada - Abstract Anne M. Orlando and Montague Demment 150
Practical Methods for Reducing Depredation by Mountain Lions - Abstract Michelle Cullens 151
Changes in Mountain Lion (Puma Concolor) Diets Following Increased Harvest of the Predator and Removal of Cattle - Abstract Ted McKinney 152
Predator-Prey Interaction Session Chair-Toni Ruth - Wildlife `W4fegfe Conservation Society
Impacts of Pumas on the Recovery of a Population of Mule Deer in Southern Idaho - Abstract John W. Laundre and Lucina Hernandez 155
Cascading Effects of Subsidized Mountain Lion Populations in the Chihuahuan Desert - Abstract E. M. Rominger, F. S. Winslow, E. J. Goldstein, D. W. Weybright, and W. C. Dunn 156
Prey Selection and Functional Response of Cougars in Northeastern Washington - Abstract Hilary S. Cruickshank, Hugh Robinson, and Robert Wielgus 157
Cougar Predation in the Flagstaff Uplands: Preliminary Results from July 2003 - May 2005 David Mattson, Jan Hart, and Terry Arundel 158
Modeling Prey and Cougar With an Approach for Managing Cougars to Meet Prey Population Objectives - Abstract David J. Vales 170
Predator Interaction Session Chair- Hugh Robinson, Washington State 'University
Patterns of Resource Use Among Cougars and Wolves in the Northwestern Montana and Southeastern British Columbia - Abstract Toni K. Ruth, Maurice G. Hornocker, Kyran E. Kunkel, and Daniel H. Pletscher 173
Interactions Between Wolves and Cougars in the Bow Valley, Banff National Park - Abstract Andrea Kortello and Dennis L. Murray 175
Spatial Distribution of Cougars (Puma Concolor) in Yellowstone National Park Before and After Wolf (Canis Lupus) Reintroduction - Abstract Polly C. Buotte, Toni K. Ruth, Kerry M. Murphy, Maurice G. Hornocker, and Howard B. Quigley 176
Effects of Wolf Reintroduction on Cougars in the Idaho Wilderness James J. Akenson and Holly A. Akenson 177
Mountain Lion Habitat Use and Movement Session Chair-Bill- Gaines, United States Forest Service Use of Least Cost Pathways to Identify Key Highway Segments for Florida Panther Conservation Kathleen Swanson, Darrell Land, Randy Kautz, and Robert Kawula 191
Gene Flow Among Mountain Lion Populations in the Southwestern USA - Abstract Brad H. McRae, Paul Beier, Laura E. DeWald, and Paul Keim 201
Exploring Source-Sink Dynamics of Wyoming Cougar Populations - Abstract Charles R. Anderson, Jr., Frederick G. Lindzey, Dan Bjornlie, Hall Sawyer, Ryan Neilson, and David. S. Moody 202
Movement Patterns of Male and Female Cougar (Puma Concolor): Implications for Harvest Vulnerability - Abstract Gary M. Koehler and Benjamin T. Maletzke 204
Conservation Strategies for Cougars in Riverside County, California: from Models to Management - Abstract Rick A. Hopkins, Brett G. Dickson, Brad H. McRae, and Paul Beier 205
Mountain Lions in an Urban Landscape: Effects on Movement, Gene Flow, and Survival -Abstract Seth P. D. Riley, Eric C. York, Jeff A. Sikich, Brad I1. McRae, and Paul Beier 206
Poster Presentations Cougars and Citizen Science: Evaluating the Accuracy of Data Collected by Student Volunteers on Cougar Ecology-Preliminary Findings - Abstract Brian N. Kertson and Christian E. Grue 209
Cougars in Oregon: Biopolitics of a Recent Research Project - Abstract Scott L. Findholt and Bruce K. Johnson 210
Managing Links Between Carnivores, Human Behaviour, and Land Use -Abstract Robert M. Hansen and Geoff Carrow 211
Eastern Cougar Sightings: Myth Or Reality? Revisiting the Issue. -Abstract Anne-Sophie Bertrand, Liette Vasseur, Eric Tremblay, Renee Wissink, and James Bridgland 212
State of Pumas in the West: Heading Towards Overkill? - Abstract Wendy Keefover-Ring 213
Beast in the Garden: A Parable in Support of Anachronistic Thinking Regarding A Predatory Animal - Abstract Wendy Keefover-Ring 214
Cougar Capture Methodologies, Documented Results and Capture Event Behavioral Trends: from A Team of Hound- Science Volunteers Supporting Key Pacific Northwest Wildlife Research Projects - Abstract Dallas D. Likens 215
Cougar-Informed Spatial Frames and Control for Autocorrelation in Analyses of Habitat Selection - Abstract David Mattson, Terry Arundel, and Jan Hart 216
Recent Cougar Confirmations in the Midwest As Documented by the Cougar Network - Abstract Clayton K. Nielsen, Mark Dowling, Ken Miller, and Bob Wilson 217
Examining Mountain Lion (Puma Concolor) Dispersal in Yellowstone National Park Using GPS/Satellite Collars - Abstract Jesse Newby, Toni K. Ruth, and Polly Buotte 218
Identifying Human-Caused Mountain Lion Kill Hotspots in the American West Christopher Papouchis and Tim Dunbar 220
Comparison of Annual Fixed Kernel Home Range Estimates of Collared Cougars (Puma Concolor) from Vi If Aerial Telemetry and GPS Collar Locations - Abstract Caleb J. Roberson, Nathan M. Riblett, Benjamin T. Maletzke, and Gary M. Koehler 221
Development and Testing of Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Techniques for Cougars in Yellowstone National Park - Abstract Michael A. Sawaya, Toni K. Ruth, Scott Creel, and Steve Kalinowski 222
Feasibility of Extracting Florida Panther DNA from Scats - Abstract Mark A. Lotz and Melanie Culver 223
Utilizing Captive Cougars in Conservation Education Efforts in Southern California - Abstract Mollie Hogan, Neil Kelley, Emily Karnes, and Larry Mann 224
Perceptions and Attitudes About Mountain Lion As A Livestock Predator in the "Canon De Santa Elena", Chihuahua, Mexico - Abstract Aaron Bueno-Cabrera, Lucina Hernandez, John Laundre, and Armando Contreras-Hernandez 225
Mountain Lion Research in Northeastern Colorado - Testing New GPS (Global Positioning Systems)Technology - Abstract Caroline E. Kn./Ram, Donald 0. I Hunter, and Michael W. Miller 226
List of Participants

Proceedings of the 9th Mountain Lion Workshop
Sun Valley, Idaho - May 5 - 8 , 2008
Preface 1
9th Mountain Lion Workshop Agenda 3
2008 State and Province Mountain Lion Status Reports Session Chair: Steve Nadeau, Idaho Department Fish and Game 9
Idaho Steve Nadeau 10
Washington Rich Beausoleil 18
Oregon Don Whittaker 23
California Doug Updike 29
Montana Absract Jim Williams 37
Wyoming Dave Moody 38
Texas John Young 48
Nevada Kevin Lansford 52
Utah Kevin Bunnell 62
Colorado Abstract Jerry Apker 74
Arizona Ron Thompson 85
South Dakota Abstract John Kanta 91
Proceedings of the Ninth Mountain Lion Workshop North Dakota Dorothy Fescke 92
Florida Panther Mark Lotz 103
Interactions With Humans At the Urban Interface Session Chair: Terry Mansfield, Retired Deputy Director, Idaho Fish and Game 109
Distribution and Movements of Mountain Lions Associated With Human Residential/Urbanized Areas in North-Central Arizona. Abstract Ted Mckinney and Scott Poppenberger 110
Demographic and Landscape Influences on Cougar-Human Interaction in Western Washington. Abstract Brian Kertson, Rocky Spencer, and Christian Grue 111
Cougar Spatial and Habitat Use in Relation to Human Development in Central Washington. Abstract Benjamin Maletzke, Gary Koehler, and Robert Wielgus 112
Challenges and Opportunities Facing Florida Panther Conservation - Can We Increase the Size of the Box? Darrell Land and Chris Belden 113
Puma Movements Relative to Housing Density in Southern California. Abstract Christopher Burdett, Kevin Crooks, David Theobald, Ken Wilson, and Walter Boyce 116
Prospects for Mountain Lion Persistence in a Complex Urban Landscape in Southern California. Abstract Seth Riley, Jeff Sikich, Eric York, and Raymond Sauvajot 117
Habitat Use and Movements Session Chair: Dorothy Feske, North Dakota Game and Fish Department 119
Novel Spatial Tools for Connectivity Conservation: A Case Study Using Cougars in Southern California. Abstract Rick Hopkins, Brett Dickson, and Brad Mcrae 120
Daily Movement Distances of Florida Panthers Assessed With GPS Collars. Abstract Marc Criffield, Dave Onorato, Mark Cunningham, Darrell Land, and Mark Lotz 121
Potential Habitat and Dispersal Corridors for Cougars in the Midwest. Abstract Clayton Neilsen and Michelle Larue 122
Refining the Use of GPS Telemetry Cluster Techniques to Estimate Cougar Kill Rate and Prey Composition. Abstract Kyle Knopff, Aliah Knopff, and Mark Boyce 123
Proceedings of the Ninth Mountain Lion Workshop Does Rural Development Fragment Puma Habitat? Anne Orlando, Steve Torres, Walter Boyce, Evan Girvetz, Emilio Laca, and Montague Demment 124
Multi-Carnivore and Prey Interactions Session Chair: Howard Quigley, Craighead Beringia South 149
Cougar Reproduction and Survival Pre- and Post-Wolf Reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park. Abstract Toni Ruth, Polly Buotte, Mark Haroldson, Kerry Murphy, Maurice Hornocker, and Howard Quigley 150
Foraging Ecology of Jaguars in the Southern Pantanal, Brazil: Kill Rates, Predation Patterns, and Species Killed. Abstract Eric Gese and Sandra Cavalcanti 152
Cougar Home Range Shifts and Apparent Decrease in Cougar Abundance in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Abstract Drew Reed,Travis Bartnick, Marilyn Cuthill, Dan McCarthy, Howard Quigley, and Derek Craighead 153
Wolf and Bear Detection of Cougar-Killed Ungulates on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park. Abstract Polly Buotte, Toni Ruth, and Maurice Hornocker 154
Cougar Scavenging Behavior and Susceptibility to Snaring At Bait Stations. Abstract Aliah Knopff, Kyle Knopff, and Mark Boyce 156
Mountain Lion Movement Patterns in Grand Canyon National Park. Abstract Eric York and Rolla Ward 157
Genetics and Disease Session Chair: Rich Desimone, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks 159
Using Dna to Estimate Cougar Populations: A Collaborative Approach. Abstract Richard Beausoleil, Kenneth Warheit, Wan-Ying Chang, Donald Martorello, and John Pierce 160
Estimating Lion Population Abundance Using Dna Samples in the Blackfoot Drainage of Westcentral Montana. Abstract Richard Desimone, Michael Schwartz, Kristine Pilgrim, and Kevin Mckelvey 162
Estimation of the Bottleneck Size in Florida Panthers. Abstract Melanie Culver and Philip Hedrick 163
Proceedings of the Ninth Mountain Lion Workshop Evaluation of Noninvasive Genetic Sampling Methods for Cougars Using A Radio-Collared Population in Yellowstone National Park. Abstract Michael Sawaya, Toni Ruth, and Steve Kalinowski 164
A Preliminary Retrospective on the Implementation of Genetic Introgression in the Florida Panther. Abstract Dave Onorato, Warren Johnson, Melody Roelke, Mark Cunningham, Darrell Land, Mark Lotz, Roy Mcbride, David Shindle, Deborah Jansen, Oron Bass, and Stephen O'brien 165
Population Estimation and Dynamics Session Chair: Bruce Ackerman, Idaho Department of Fish and Game 167
Evaluation of Cougar Population Estimators in Utah. Abstract David Choate, Michael Wolfe, and David Stoner 168
Dynamics and Demography of a Central Washington Cougar Population. Abstract Hillary Cooley, Gary Koehler, Benjamin Maletzke, and Robert Wielgus 169
Variation in Cougar Survival by Individual Traits, Density, and Seasonal Weather. Abstract Diana Ghikas, Martin Jalkotzy, and Ian Ross 170
The Idaho Backcountry: Is It Still A Source Population for Cougars in Idaho? Holly Akenson, Bruce Ackerman, and Toni Ruth 171
Source-Sink Dynamics and the Recovery of Overexploited Cougar Populations. Abstract David Stoner and Michael Wolfe 184
Censusing Pumas by Categorizing Physical Evidence. Abstract Roy Mcbride, Rocky Mcbride, Rowdy Mcbride, and Cougar Mcbride 185
Education and Social Issues Session Chair: Gary Koehler, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife 187
Studying Public Perceptions and Knowledge of Cougars in Washington As A Precursor to Outreach and Education Planning. Abstract Chris Morgan, Jim Harmon, and Donald Martorello 188
The Land of the Living Dead Comes Alive: the Florida Panther in Big Cypress. Abstract Deborah Jansen and Roy Mcbride 189
Project Cat (Cougars and Teaching) … What the Community Has Learned. Abstract Trish Griswold, Spencer Osbolt, Sarah Gronostalski, Jamie French, Benjamin Wagsholm, Kevin White, Gary Koehler, and Benjamin Maletzke 190
Science and Education Working Together to Promote Lion Awareness At Grand Canyon. Abstract Lori Rome 191
Proceedings of the Ninth Mountain Lion Workshop A New Paradigm for Partnerships in Cougar Research and Management. Laura Foreman 192
Panel on Mt. Lion Challenges of Past, Present, and Future Session Chair: Jim Akenson, University of Idaho Taylor Ranch Panel Members: Howard Quigley, Terry Mansfield, Gary Power, Gary Koehler, Steve Nadeau, Linda Sweanor 196
Key Concepts Session Chair: Kerry Murphy, Yellowstone Center for Resources 201
Implications of Sink Populations in Large Carnivore Management: Cougar Demography and Immigration in a Hunted Population. Abstract Hugh Robinson, Robert Wielgus, Hillary Cooley, and Skye Cooley 202
Dispersal Movements of Subadult Cougars from the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming: Concepts of Range Edge, Range Expansion, and Repatriation. Abstract Daniel Thompson, Jonathan Jenks, and Brian Jansen 203
Formation of a Professional Organization: the Wild Felid Research and Management Association. Abstract Linda Sweanor, John Beecham, Chris Belden, Deanna Dawn, Richard Desimone, Gary Koehler, Sharon Negri, Chris Papouchis, Hugh Robinson, and Ron Thompson 204
Cougar Management Protocols: A Survey of Wildlife Agencies in North America. Richard Beausoleil, Deanna Dawn, Chris Morgan, and Donald Martorello 205
Business Meeting Wafwa State/Province Reps, Vote for Next Conference Location. Posters Ecology of a Re-Established Cougar Population in Southeastern Alberta and Southwestern Sasketchewan. Abstract Michelle Bacon and Mark Boyce 244
Generating an Index of Relative Abundance for Cougars Throughout the Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Area Using Winter Tracking Methods. Travis Bartnick, Dan McCarthy, Marilyn Cuthill, Drew Reed, Howard Quigley, and Derek Craighead 245
Movements of a Female Cougar on the Human-Wildlands Interface. Abstract Marilyn Cuthill, Dan McCarthy, Travis Bartnick, Drew Reed, Howard Quigley, and Derek Craighead 247
Estimating Cougar Abundance in Northeastern Oregon. Abstract Scott Findholt and Bruce Johnson 248
Proceedings of the Ninth Mountain Lion Workshop Survival and Ages of Cougars Harvested After Cougar Hunting With Dogs Was Banned in Oregon. Abstract Scott Findholt, Bruce Johnson, Dewaine Jackson, James Akenson, and Mark Henjum 249
Research and Educational Efforts by the Cougar Network. Abstract Clayton Neilsen, Mark Dowling, Kenneth Miller, Robert Wilson, Harley Shaw, Charles Anderson, and Scott Wilson 250
Intra-Specific Variation in Cougar Behavior in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Abstract Dan McCarthy, Marilyn Cuthill, Travis Bartnick, Drew Reed, Howard Quigley, and Derek Craighead 251
Mountain Lion Movements Relative to Development, Roads, and Trails in a Fragmented Landscape. Abstract Jeff Sikich, Seth Riley, Eric York, and Raymond Sauvajot Cougars in British Columbia: Conservation Assessment and Science-Based Management Recommendations. Abstract Corinna Wainwright and Chris Darimont 253
Safety and Effectiveness of Cage Traps for the Capture of Cougar. Abstract Brian Kertson, Rocky Spencer, and Bruce Richards 254
Cougar-Induced Vigilance in Ungulate Prey: Does Predator Proximity Matter? Abstract David Choate, Gary Belovsky, and Michael Wolfe 255
Variations in the Reproductive Success of Female Cougars by Individual Traits, Density, and Seasonal Weather. Abstract Diana Ghikas, Martin Jalkotzy, and P. Ian Ross 256
List of Participants 257