Arizona's Kofa Wildlife Refuge
Photo of library book shelves filled with books.


Always a work in progress, this page is a collection of publications, articles, photos, reports, regulations, comment letters and legislation we have complied through the years.

Current efforts include making each publication an active link, either to the publication itself, or, for materials under strict copyright protection, to an abstract and an opportunity to purchase the material.

If you have publications to recommend to the library, or have comments or corrections, please use the link above and complete the online form.

  • Return to the portal page for Arizona.

  • The status of puma concolor in Arizona.

  • State law and regulations affecting cougars.

  • The history of cougars in Arizona.

  • Ecosystems and habitat in Arizona.

  • Cougar science and research in Arizona.

  • Our library of media, research and reports.

  • How you can take action to help!

Arizona Cougar Files Sorted by Type

Scientific Research

  • Bateman, G., Ockenfels, R.,Thompson, R. (1988). The Third Mountain Lion Workshop.
  • Beier, P. (2001). 111 Years of Puma Attacks on Humans
  • Bischoff-Mattson, Z., & Mattson, D. (2009). Effects of Simulated Mountain Lion Caching on Decomposition of Ungulate Carcasses. Western North American Naturalist, 69(3), 343–350.
  • Brown, D. (1984). ARIZONA Dave Brown, 9–12.
  • Casey et al 2002 REPORT Activity Patterns, Movements, and Diet of Mountain Lions in an Urbanized Environment. (n.d.).
  • Casey, A. L., Krausman, P. R., Shaw, W. W., & Brosseau, M. (2002). Activity Patterns , Movements , and Diet of Mountain Lions in an Urbanized Environment, (September).
  • Casey, A. L., Krausman, P. R., Shaw, W. W., & Shaw, H. G. (2005). Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Mountain Lions: A Public Survey of Residents Adjacent to Saguaro National Park, Arizona. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 10(June 2014), 29–38.
  • Connected, A., & Related, A. (1892). Help Sierra Club Protect Wilderness in Grand Canyon National Park.
  • Cunningham, S. C., Gustavson, C. R., Ballard, W. B., & Ballard, B. (2012). Diet selection of mountain lions in southeastern Arizona, 52(3), 202–207.
  • Dickson, B. G., Roemer, G. W., McRae, B. H., & Rundall, J. M. (2013). Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States.
  • Freeman, W., Valley, C., & Jack, F. (2012). Hunt Arizona 2012 Edition.
  • Haynes et al 2002 Results of 2002 Mountain Lion (Puma Concolor) Track Surveys in Saguaro National Park, Tucson Mountain District. (n.d.).
  • Haynes Swann 2002 Summary of 2001-2002 Mountain Lion (Puma Concolor) Monitoring in Saguaro National Park, Tucson Mountain district. (n.d.).
  • Interior, D. of the. (1940). United States Department of the Interior. Journal of the National Medical Association, 32(1), 38. Retrieved from
  • Kluever, B. M., Breck, S. W., Howery, L. D., Krausman, P. R., David, L., Ecology, S. R., … Bergman, L. (2015). Allen Press Society for Range Management Vigilance in Cattle: The Influence of Predation , Social Interactions , and Environmental Factors
  • Leslie, E. (2001). Mountain lion-human interactions on the Colorado Palteau: the effects of human use areas on mountain lion movements, behavior, and activity patterns. Crossing Boundaries in Park Management: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands
  • March, C. (2002). Selected comments of organizations and individuals on the Arizona Game & Fish Department ’ s Bighorn Sheep / Mountain Lion Project.
  • Mattson, D. (2007). Mountain Lions of the Flagstaff Uplands 2003-2006 Progress Report. USGS
  • Mc Kinney, T., Wakeling, B. F., & Dell, J. C. O. (2006). Mountain lion depredation harvests in Arizona, 1976–2005, 303–314.
  • Mckinney, T. E. D., Game, A., Road, W. G., Smith, T. W., & Jr, J. C. (2003). Evaluation of Factors Potentially Influencing a Desert Bighorn Sheep Population
  • Meadow, B. (2004). Decisionresearch, 92101(619).
  • Moskowitz, K., & Romaniello, C. (2002). Assessing The Full Cost of the Federal Grazing Program, (October).
  • Naidu, A., Fitak, R. R., Munguia-Vega, A., & Culver, M. (2012). Novel primers for complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequencing in mammals. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12(2), 191–196.
  • Naidu, A., Smythe, L. a., Thompson, R. W., & Culver, M. (2011). Genetic Analysis of Scats Reveals Minimum Number and Sex of Recently Documented Mountain Lions. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2(1), 106–111.
  • Naidu, A., Smythe, L., Thompson, R., & Culver, M. (n.d.). Minimum Number , Sex , and Diet of Recently Documented Mountain Lions on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge , Arizona, 4.
  • Phelps, J., Game, A., & Road, W. G. (n.d.). STATUS REPORT ON MOUNTAIN LIONS IN ARIZONA, 1–3.
  • Profile, P. (2013). Grand Canyon, 3–7.
  • Rachael, J., Nadeau, S., & Compton, B. (2010). Mountain lion management plan 2002 - 2010, (March 2002), 3–5.
  • Renesse, L. D. W. A., & Duivenbode, V. (1999). The taxonomic and conservation status of. Library, 15(5), 1–13.
  • Ruyle, G., Smith, L., & Ogden, P. (1996). Strategies for Managing Grazing Allotments on Public Lands, 47–54.
  • Schubert 2003 Summarization and Evaluation of Mountain Lion Management Practices and Procedures in Arizona. (n.d.).
  • Service, W., & Game, A. (2010). Cat Project of the Month – April 2010 Minimum number and diet assessment of recently documented pumas at Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona to address predation management for desert bighorn sheep conservation Kofa NWR has made significant progress , (April).
  • Service, W., National, K., Refuge, W., & Game, A. (2009). Environmental Assessment for Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge. Wilderness, (May).
  • Snakes, V., & Lions, M. (2001). History of Mountain Lion Management, (Table 3), 7–8.
  • Society, W. (2016). Use of Road Track Counts as Indices of Mountain Lion Presence
  • Thompson, R., Game, A., & Biologist, L. C. (1989). Arizona Mountain Lion Status Report, 85–90.
  • Vacariu, K. (n.d.). Threats to Cross-Border Wildlife Linkages in the Sky Islands Wildlands Network Borderlands Habitat Fragmentation and, 353–356.
  • Winslow, R. E. M., Phoenix, K. R. D., Pat, E., Flagstaff, M., Yuma, J. R. A., & Tucson, J. W. H. (2014). Hunt Arizona 2014 Edition.

Agency Reports

  • AZDFG (2007) Press Release: Game and Fish to Conduct Mountain Lion Presentation.
  • AZDFG (2012) Mountain lion harvest data
  • AZDFG. (2001). Wildlife 2006.
  • AZDFG. (2003). 2002-2003 Arizona Hunt Regulation Changes For 2002-2003, 4–8.
  • AZDFG. (2004). Tucson , Arizona Sponsored by Arizona Game and Fish Department Executive Summary Organization of the Report The Workshop Funding Ideas Appendix A — Overall Results Appendix B — Public Comment: Individual Responses Appendix C — Public Comment: Organizati, 1–22.
  • AZDFG. (2007). Kofa Mountains Complex Predation Management Plan, (April).
  • AZDFG. (2012). Wildlife 2012, (August 2006), 85023.
  • AZDFG. (2013). 2013-14 Arizona Hunting Regulations, (800).
  • AZDFG. (n.d.). Arizona Game and Fish Department Action Plan For Minimizing and Responding to LionlIluman.
  • AZDFG (2006). Kofa National Wildlife Refuge Environmental Assessment.
  • AZDFG (n.d.). Survey, Harvest and Hunt Datafor Big and Small Game.



  • AGFD Freeman 2005 Mountain Lion Tracking Goes High Tech.
  • Arizona Daily Star 2004 Commission Agrees to Moratorium on Lion Shootings.
  • Arizona Daily Star Beal 2004 Suprise End to Sabino Lion Story.
  • Arizona Daily Star Beal 2005 2 Animal Activist convicted of Disrupting Mountain Lion Hunt in Sabino Canyon.
  • Arizona Daily Star Dalenberg 2008 Mountain Lion Killed After Menacing Hiker.
  • Arizona Daily Star McCombs 2007 Border Patrol Agent Escapes Charging Mountain Lion Unharmed.
  • Arizona Daily Star Nienstedt 2007 Fish and Wildife Service Mustn’t Allow Hunting of Mountain Lions.
  • Arizona Daily Sun 2004 Agency Votes to Protect Cougar Kittens.
  • Arizona Republic 2008 New Cubs Eli, Brady, on Prowl at Phoenix Zoo.
  • Arizona Republic Kelley 2005 Mountain Lion Kills 20 Emus, Still at Large.
  • Arizona Republic Leung 2008 10-year-old Calm as Lion Attacked, Grampa Recalls.
  • Arizona Republic Leung 2008 Rabid Mountain Lion Attacks El Mirage Boy.
  • Arizona Republic Nolan 2005 Lion Tests State’s New Protocol.
  • Arizona Republic Nolan 2005 Mountain Lion Monitored with New State Guidelines.
  • Arizona Republic Nolan 2005 SW Wildlife Hires Educational Director.
  • Arizona Republic Pitzl 2004 Development vs.
  • Arizona Republic Purtill 2007 Biologist Found Dead, Plague is Likely Cause.
  • Arizona Star 2007 Wildlife Refuge Postpones Plans for Mountain Lion Hunt.
  • Arizona Sun Cole 2005 And Then There Were 3.
  • Arizona Sun Cole 2005 No Lion, Students Learn About Living with Cougars.
  • Arizona Sun Cole 2005 Research Cougar Shot by Hunter.
  • Arizona Sun Cole 2005 Spot a Mountain Lion, Here’s What to Do.
  • Arizona Sun Muller 2004 Mountain Lion Hunt Turns Up Two Bobcats.
  • Associated Press 2008 Arizona to Stop Killing Cougars.
  • Associated Press 2008 Boy Saved From Rabid Mountain Lion.
  • Associated Press 2008 Mountain Lion Killed for Targeting Bighorn Sheep.
  • Associated Press 2008 Mountain Lion That Stalked Hiker Killed.
  • Associated Press 2008 Officials Keeping Eye On Mountain Lions Near Tucson.
  • Associated Press 2008 Rabid Mountain Lion Shot North of Phoenix After Attacking Boy.
  • Associated Press Billeaud 2007 Arizona Biologist Likely Died of Plague.
  • AZGFD Partners in Kofa National Wildlife Refuge Bighorn Sheep Restoration Effort Announce Moratorium on Mountain Lion Control.
  • Bowers 2008 Planners Consider Animal Movements in Road Plans.
  • CNN Dorin 2008 Boarder-Fence Dispute Snares Rare Jaguars.
  • Comments on 10 Year Old Attacked by Mountain Lion.
  • Cronkite News Service Duran 2007 Legislative Memorial Calls for State to Manage Bighorn Sheep in Kofa Range.
  • Cronkite News Service Novak 2007 Animals Often Pay Price When They Become Exotic Pets.
  • Daily Courier Dodde 2007 Wildlife Protocol.
  • Daily Courier Dodder 2007 Game and Fish To Redirect, Add Wildlife.
  • East Valley Tribune Kullman 2005 Scientist Aims to Meld Wildlife, Growing East Valley.
  • Environment News Service 2003 Animal Rights Groups Sue to Protect Mountain Lions.
  • Fox 11 News Roberts 2008 Mountain Lion Spotted in Madera Canyon.
  • High Country News Davis 2004 Cougar Hunt Creates Uproar.
  • High Country News Heim 2007 Making a Killing to Save Arizona’s Desert Bighorn Sheep.
  • High Country News Minard 2002 Cat Trouble Dogs Flagstaff.
  • Hull 2008 Using the Cougar.
  • KVOA Tuscon News4 2006 Refuge Could Open for First Time to Mountain Lion Hunters.
  • KVOA Tuscon News4 2008 Mountain Lion Warning for Popular Tuscon Trail.
  • KVOA Tuscon News4 2008 Mountain Lions Spotted in Tuscon.
  • Local10 2007 Biologist Dies of Plage In Arizona.
  • Mattson 2002 The Importance of Walnut Canyon National Monument as Habitat for Cougars (Puma Concolor) in an Urban Interface Environment.
  • Mattson 2002 Walnut Canyon 2002 David Mattson Email.
  • Mattson 2002 Walnut Canyon Cougar Report Form.
  • Medical News Today 2007 Plague Suspected in Death of Man in Arizona.
  • NewsChannel 3 Staff 2004 Protest Over Mountain Lions Leads to Arrest.
  • Phoenix Zoo 2008 Comments on Phoenix Zoo Looking to Name New Mountain Lion Cubs.
  • Phoenix Zoo 2008 Phoenix Zoo Looking To Name New Mountain Lion Cubs.
  • Roffe and Work 2005 EXCERPT Wildlife Health Disease Investigations pp197-202 of Techniques for Wildlife Investigations Management.pdf.
  • Sierra Vista Herald Hess 2007 Group Spending Weekend Tracking Mountain Lions on Fort.
  • The Fund For Animals 2003 Animal Protection Groups File Suit Over Arizona Mountain Lion Killing “Study.”
  • Tucson Citizen 2006 Attorney; Activists’ Trial Not About Lions.
  • Tucson Citizen 2007 Review Halts Planned Kofa Mountain Lion Hunt.
  • Tucson Citizen Copenhaver 2005 Boost Your Cougar Awareness.
  • Tucson Citizen Copenhaver 2005 Keeping Tabs on Lions.
  • Tuscon Citizen Cedillos 2004 Dozens Gather to Protest Mountain Lion Hunt in Sabino.
  • Tuscon Citizen Flick 2005 Three Indicted Again in Sabino Mountain Lion Hunt.
  • UPI 2008 Family Fights Off Rabid Mountain Lion.
  • Yuma Sun 2008 Comments on Officials Announce Killing of Mountain Lion.
  • Yuma Sun 2008 Officials Seek Input on Kofa Mountain Lions.
  • Yuma Sun Gilber 2008 Public Comment Period for Kofa Mountain Lion Plan Extended.
  • Yuma Sun Gilbert 2007 Group Critical of Mountain Lion Killing.
  • Yuma Sun Gilbert 2008 Officials Announce Killing of Mountain Lion.
  • Yuma Sun Rotstein 2007 Wildlife Refuge Postpones Plans for Mountain Lion Hunt.

Click here to visit the scorecard's website...

Environmental Scorecard

League of Conservation Voters

The League of Conservation Voters' scorecard considers the State Legislature's environmental records since 1971. It quantifies the environmental votes of each individual legislator — an important first step in considering accountability — and provides critical qualitative assessments as well. The scorecard will help you to know your legislator before you write a letter in support of cougars.

Click here to view our Activist Guide...

Becoming a Mountain Lion Activist

There are lots of opportunities to take action!

Are you new to mountain lion activism? You want to change your local environment to improve it for cougars... but you don't know how to start. You may feel like you are all alone... but it takes just one person to change the attitudes and lifestyles of hundreds of others. You don't need to belong to a group. It doesn't take special skills or superhuman abilities. You just need to care enough about cougars to want to help them survive. You've already done the hard part, now let us help you with the next step.

The Mountain Lion Foundation is a tax-deductible non-profit organization, tax exempt under
Section 501(c)(3) of the IRS code (Federal I.D. # 94-3015360)

Copyright 1988-2021. Material produced by the Mountain Lion Foundation is protected under copyright laws. Permission to rebroadcast or duplicate is granted for non-commercial use when the Mountain Lion Foundation is credited.