River Bend in Montana
Photo of library book shelves.


Always a work in progress, this page is a collection of publications, articles, photos, reports, regulations, comment letters and legislation we have complied through the years.

Current efforts include making each publication an active link, either to the publication itself, or, for materials under strict copyright protection, to an abstract and an opportunity to purchase the material.

If you have publications to recommend to the library, or have comments or corrections, please use the link above and complete the online form.

  • Return to the portal page for Montana State.

  • The status of Puma concolor in Montana.

  • State law and regulations affecting mountain lions.

  • The history of mountain lions in Montana.

  • Ecosystems and habitat in Montana.

  • Cougar science and research in Montana.

  • Our library of media, research and reports.

  • How you can take action to help!

Mountain Lion Files Sorted by Type

Scientific Research

  • Balkenhol, N., Holbrook, J. D., Onorato, D., Zager, P., White, C., & Waits, L. P. (2014). A multi-method approach for analyzing hierarchical genetic structures: A case study with cougars Puma concolor. Ecography, 37(6), 552–563.
  • Choate, D. (2009). Cougar-Induced Behavioral Plasticity, (July).
  • Fish, M., Division, W., Aid, F., Wildlife, I., & Report, F. (n.d.). T he G arnet R ange M ountain L ion S tudy.
  • Gara, B. W. O., & Harris, R. B. (2015). BY OF DEER KILLED AGE AND CONDITION AND AUTOMOBILES, 52(2), 316–320.
  • Gese, E. M. (2015). Comparative Patterns Wolves Recolonizing of in Predation Montana â€TM s and by Cougars, 71(4), 1098–1106.
  • Harris, N. C., Pletscher, D. H., & Thompson, M. (2004). Cause-specific Mortality of Rocky Mountain Elk Calves in Westcentral Montana, 2001(Zager 2001), 339–347.
  • Hornocker, M. G., Craighead, J. J., & Pfeiffer, E. W. (2015). CHLORIDE AND PENTOBARBITAL, 29(4), 880–883.
  • Kunkel, K. E., Atwood, T. C., Ruth, T. K., Pletscher, D. H., & Hornocker, M. G. (2013). Assessing wolves and cougars as conservation surrogates, 16(2001), 32–40.
  • Kunkel, K. E., Ruth, T. K., Pletscher, D. H., & Hornocker, M. G. (2015). BY WOLVES AND COUGARS IN AND WINTER PREY SELECTION NEAR GLACIER NATIONAL, 63(3), 901–910.
  • Mech, L. D., White, P. J., & Sargeant, G. A. (2015). Survival of adult female elk in Yellowstone following wolf restoration, 70(5), 1372–1378.
  • Murphy, K. M., Felzien, G. S., Hornocker, M. G., & Ruth, T. K. (2015). COMPETITION ENCOUNTER BETWEEN BEARS AND COUGARS?: SOME ECOLOGICAL, 10(July 1995), 55–60.
  • Onorato, D., Desimone, R., White, C., Waits, L. P., Desimone, R., & Waits, L. P. (2015). The Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(2), 378–384.
  • Pletscher, D. H. (2015). SPECIES-SPECIFIC DYNAMICS OF CERVIDS IN A ECOSYSTEM, 63(4), 1082–1093.
  • Riley, S. J., & Malecki, R. A. (2001). A Landscape Analysis of Cougar Distribution and Abundance in Montana , USA, 28(3), 317–323.
  • Riley, S. J., Decker, D. J., Riley, S. J., & Decker, D. J. (2015). Camivore Mamt Issues CAPACITY Wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana, 28(4), 931–939.
  • Robinson, H. S., Ruth, T., Gude, J. A., Choate, D., Desimone, R., Hebblewhite, M., … Williams, J. (2015). Linking resource selection and mortality modeling for population estimation of mountain lions in Montana. Ecological Modelling, 312, 11–25.
  • Robinson, H. S., St, W., York, N., & Cooperative, M. (2014). A Test of the Compensatory Mortality Hypothesis in Mountain Lions?: A Management Experiment in West-Central Montana, 78(5), 791–807.
  • Russell, R. E., Royle, J. A., Desimone, R., Michael, K., Edwards, V. L., Pilgrim, K. P., & Mckelvey, K. S. (2016). Estimating Abundance of Mountain Lions From Unstructured Spatial Sampling, 76(8), 1551–1561.
  • Russell, R. E., Royle, J. A., Desimone, R., Michael, K., Edwards, V. L., Pilgrim, K. P., … Mountain, R. (2015). Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article?: Abundance of Mountain Estimating From Unstructured Spatial Sampling, 76(8), 1551–1561.
  • White, G. C. (2015). Survival and Cause-Specific Mortality of Male Mule Deer Under Different Hunting Regulations in the Bridger Mountains , Montana, 71(3), 816–827.
  • Williams, S., & Williams, J. S. (1992). Abstract?:
  • Young, J. H., Tewes, M. E., Haines, A. M., & Demaso, S. J. (1894). Survival and Mortality of Cougars in the Trans-Pecos Region Your use of this PDF , the BioOne Web site , and all posted and associated content, 55(3), 411–418.

Agency Reports

  • MTFWP. (n.d.). Bear Spray Successfully Deterred a Mountain Lion.


  • Court. (1997). No. 96-551, (96).
  • Senate. (2011). Montana Conservation Issue Legislative Hotlist Montana Conservation Issue Legislative Hotlist.
  • Senate. (2011). Senate Bill No. 395, (2), 1-10.


  • News. (2015). MLF Online News Nov 11 2015.

Click here to view our Activist Guide...

Becoming a Mountain Lion Activist

There are lots of opportunities to take action!

Are you new to mountain lion activism? You want to change your local environment to improve it for cougars... but you don't know how to start. You may feel like you are all alone... but it takes just one person to change the attitudes and lifestyles of hundreds of others. You don't need to belong to a group. It doesn't take special skills or superhuman abilities. You just need to care enough about cougars to want to help them survive. You've already done the hard part, now let us help you with the next step.

Click here to open a new window and visit the agency's website...

Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks

Commonly abbreviated as: MFWP

Martha Williams, Director

Main Office:
1420 East 6th Avenue
P.O. Box 200701
Helena, MT 59620-0701
(406) 444-2535

Wildlife Management Section Chief
Quentin Kujala

Main Office:
1420 East 6th Avenue
P.O. Box 200701
Helena, MT 59620-0701
(406) 444-5672

Please write to the director and express your concern for mountain lions in Montana.

Ask them to stop increasing mountain lion hunting quotas.

Thank MFWP when they take steps to protect our state's mountain lions.