Mountain Lions in the State of Florida

The Florida panther is the only known breeding population of mountain lions in the United States east of the Mississippi River. This tiny population survived early extermination by people due to the highly impenetrable Florida Everglades. It it also the only lion population to have federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. In the 1980’s, the Florida panther population was down to only a few dozen inbred cats, and researchers released female lions from Texas to help bolster the population. Today, Florida panther numbers have rebounded, but their habitat continues to shrink; resulting in increased roadkill and fights to the death with other panthers for territory.

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History

Historically, Florida panthers were native to the Southeastern states including Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia into South Carolina as well as Florida. Like many other populations of mountain lions across North America, these cats were extirpated from their original range under the persecution and killing regimes propagated by early European settlers, who immediately set about fearfully clearing the lands of all large predators.

Indigenous tribes occupied the land for thousands of years as nomadic hunters and farmers before Europeans arrived. These tribes hunted mammoths, bison, giant tortoises, rabbits and alligators among other animals. Before the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans originally lived in what is now Florida include the Calusa, Timucua, Creek, Choctaw and Seminole.

The Choctaw knew the panther as ‘koi,’ the Muskogee Creek knew the panther as ‘kaccv, the Timucua called panther ‘yaraha’.

The Seminole were originally an alliance of northern Florida and southern Georgia tribes who banded together in the 1700s to fight European invaders from Spain and France. The original homelands of the Creek and other tribes were in northern Florida but since tribes of southern Florida had been mainly shipped to Cuba by the Spanish, the Seminoles retreated south, where descendants remain today. Florida remained under Spanish rule until 1821.

Hunting panthers was historically part of the Seminole religious and cultural tradition where the hunter even ate the panther to gain spiritual knowledge and energy of that animal. In 1987 Seminole Chief Billie was prosecuted by the U.S. government for killing and eating an endangered Florida panther. Part of the defense argument pointed out the irony of the panther becoming endangered due to the white man’s commercial development and habitat destruction of the Everglades while a Native American, Chief Billie, was the only person ever to be prosecuted for killing an endangered Florida panther.

Spanish Occupation

The first recorded sighting of Puma concolor on the North American continent occurred in Florida. In 1513, a Spanish conquistador, Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca spotted a “lion” near the Florida Everglades.

That sighting was the beginning of negative interaction between humans and panthers in this state for more than 400 years. During that time period Puma concolor coryi was shot on sight by livestock owners, hunted for a bounty, lost their primary prey species (white-tailed deer) due to a legislative order, and had their ever-dwindling habitat degraded or changed into human settlements and agricultural development.

The U.S. acquired Florida from Spain by treaty in 1821. After that, settlers began to arrive by steamboat in the 1830s and land was cleared for Florida’s first railroads. A bounty was immediately placed on panthers in 1832 in all Florida counties and the unregulated eradication of the cats had begun. In 1887, the State of Florida authorized a $5 bounty on every panther killed and the only thing that gave panthers respite from persecution was the deep, dark Everglades. This vast area of remote swampland remained an impenetrable tract of safety for the few panthers who were able to escape relentless persecution and retreat to the southern tip of Florida.

In the early 1990s, the panther population was down to less than 50 individuals. Genetic defects from inbreeding were making reproduction difficult and put the population in greater jeopardy for diseases and early death. Eight female mountain lions from Texas were relocated to southern Florida to help revive the gene pool and all of their offspring are considered to be Florida panthers.

Today, the Florida panther is one of the most endangered mammals in the U.S. with only an estimated 100-160 individuals remaining in the wild.

Fur trade

In the 1600s, the fur trade in the Americas became globalized and furs obtained from Native Americans were shipped to Europe where they were in high demand. Europeans imported goods the Indians wanted and were able to trade for the furs. In 1602, the Company of New France was given a royal charter and exclusive trading rights from Florida to the Arctic.

Bounty

In 1832 a bounty was placed on panthers in all counties. Then in 1887, the State of Florida authorized a $5 bounty on every panther killed. (As noted in text above)

Sport and Recreational Hunting

In 1950, the Florida panther was regulated as a game species with hunting seasons. Soon after that, in 1958, due to the decreasing population of the species, the panther was listed as a state endangered species. In 1967 the Florida panther was listed as endangered by the Federal Government and immediately added to the newly created Federal Endangered Species list upon its creation in 1973.

Florida’s History of Panther Management

The first recorded sighting of Puma concolor on the North American continent occurred in Florida. In 1513, a Spanish conquistador, Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca spotted a “lion” near the Florida Everglades.

That sighting was possibly the last benign interaction between humans and panthers in this state for more than 400 years. During that time period Puma concolor coryi was shot on sight by livestock owners, hunted for a bounty, lost their primary prey species (white-tailed deer) due to a legislative order, and had their ever-dwindling habitat degraded or changed into human settlements and agricultural development.

The Florida panther didn’t receive any protection from humans prior to 1958 when it was listed as an endangered species under state law. By 1996, there were only 30 to 50 panthers still alive in Florida, and the only reason that many survived is because the Everglades have long prevented easy access to mankind.

Important Dates in the History of the Florida Panther

  • 1832 – Bounty placed on panthers in all Florida counties.
  • 1887 – State of Florida authorizes a $5 bounty for every panther killed.
  • 1937 – Florida legislature passes a bill to eradicate the white-tailed deer due to disease.
  • 1946 – Florida’s panther listed as a subspecies of Felis concolor in both North and South America.
  • 1950 – Panther regulated as a game species in Florida.
  • 1958 – Florida panther listed as a state endangered species.
  • 1967 – The Florida panther is listed as endangered by the Federal Government.
  • 1973 – Florida panther is added to newly created Federal Endangered Species List.
  • 1981 – First Florida panther recovery plan.
  • 1982 – Based on a vote by Florida’s schoolchildren, Puma concolor coryi is designated as the state animal.
  • 1986 – Three wild-caught, female Texas mountain lions are brought to Florida to test the possibilities of captive breeding.
  • 1988 – Seven wild-caught mountain lions, captured in west Texas are released in northern Florida to study relocation possibilities.
  • 1989 – The Florida panther National Wildlife Refuge is established.
  • 1991 – Florida panther license plates go on sale.
  • 1993 – 19 mountain lions, (11 females and 8 sterilized males – both captive-raised as well as wild-caught) are introduced into the local panther population to study the biological feasibility of reintroduction.
  • 1995 – Eight wild-caught female mountain lions are captured and released in an effort to reverse the effects of inbreeding.
  • 1996 – The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission estimates that there are only 30 – 50 panthers remaining in Florida.
  • 2004 -1.4 million panther license plates have been issued, generating nearly $40 million.
  • 2010 – US Fish & Wildlife Service petitioned to list the panther’s habitat as critical.
  • 2012 – US Fish & Wildlife Service’s critical panther habitat petition denied.
  • 2013 – Environmental groups file lawsuit to protect the Big Cypress National Preserve and the Florida panther from off-road vehicles.

Status

Florida FWC investigates disorder impacting panthers

The FWC is investigating a disorder detected in some Florida panthers and bobcats. All the affected animals have exhibited some degree of walking abnormally or difficulty coordinating their back legs.

As of August 2019, the FWC has confirmed neurological damage in one panther and one bobcat. Additionally, trail camera footage has captured eight panthers (mostly kittens) and one adult bobcat displaying varying degrees of this condition. Videos of affected cats were collected from multiple locations in Collier, Lee and Sarasota counties, and at least one panther photographed in Charlotte County could also have been affected. The FWC has been reviewing videos and photographs from other areas occupied by panthers but to date the condition appears to be localized as it is only documented in three general areas.

FWC asks public to help document disorder impacting panthers – YouTube

The FWC is testing for various potential toxins, including neurotoxic rodenticide (rat pesticide), as well as infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies.

The public can help with this investigation by submitting trail camera footage or other videos that happen to capture animals that appear to have a problem with their rear legs. Files less than 10MB can be uploaded to our panther sighting webpage at MyFWC.com/PantherSightings. If you have larger files, please contact the FWC at Panther.Sightings@MyFWC.com.

For more information and FAQ’s regarding ongoing efforts to identify and manage the cause of this neurological disorder, visit: myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/wildlife/panther/disorder/.

Bringing the Florida Panther Back from the Brink

In 1950, Puma concolor coryi’s status changed from a “nuisance species” to that of a game animal. This status change halted indiscriminate killing, but the Florida panther wasn’t really protected until 1958 when it was listed as a state endangered species, and then later when it attained federal listing as an endangered subspecies on March 11, 1967.

In order to consider delisting the Florida panther from the endangered species list, the federal recovery plan requires:

    1. Three viable, self-sustaining populations of at least 240 individuals (adults and subadults) each have been established and subsequently maintained for a minimum of twelve years.
    2. Sufficient habitat quality, quantity, and spatial configuration to support these populations is retained / protected or secured for the long-term.
    3. Exchange of individuals and gene flow among subpopulations must be natural (i.e., not manipulated or managed).

1988, seven wild mountain lions were caught in west Texas, sterilized to prevent breeding, and released into northern Florida to study the feasibility of relocating panthers.

The results from this study were used to design and implement a second study in February, 1993 to evaluate the use of captive-raised animals in reestablishing a panther population in northern Florida and southern Georgia. Nineteen mountain lions, including 6 raised in captivity and conditioned for release into the wild, were released into the northern Florida study area and monitored through June 1995 (Belden and McCown 1996). This study found that reestablishment of additional Florida panther populations was biologically feasible.

In 1995, in an effort to reverse the effects of inbreeding, eight young-adult, non-pregnant, female, Texas mountain lions were captured and introduced into the Florida panther population.

A 1996 status report on the Florida panther by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission noted that the only documented breeding population of Florida panthers remained in southern Florida from Lake Okeechobee southward, primarily in the Big Cypress and Everglades physiographic regions. At the time it was estimated that only 30 to 50 animals, living in an area of roughly 4,000+ square miles, still remained. The Commission’s analysis indicated that, “without intervention, the Florida panther population had a high probability of becoming extinct in 25 to 40 years.

The report went on to state:

The Florida panther faces the threat of extinction on 3 fronts. First, there is continual loss of panther habitat through human development. This continuing decline in available habitat reduces the carrying capacity and, therefore, the numbers of panthers that can survive. Second, genetic variation is probably decaying at a rate that is causing inbreeding depression (reduction of viability and fecundity of offspring of breeding pairs that are closely related genetically) and precluding continued adaptive evolution (Seal and Lacy 1989). Third, panther numbers may already be so low that random fluctuations could lead to extinction.

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
1996 Florida Panther Status Report

Due to many factors, including the influx of new genetic material, increased public awareness, innovative wildlife corridors across deadly highways, and the acquisition of critical panther habitat within the primary zone, Florida’s panther population has, at the very least, doubled in size and stepped back from the brink of extinction. However, the inability of the species to expand beyond its tiny refuge in the Everglades will keep it on the endangered species list for a long time to come.

Human-Caused Mortalities in Florida

Now that the Florida panther is listed as a federally protected species, the number one cause of panther mortality in Florida is lack of sufficient habitat.

Florida’s crowded conditions force young panthers into situations where they have to fight older more experienced panthers to establish their territories, or if they do disperse, put them at risk of being killed in an automobile collision. The five-year average of annual panther mortalities is 25 per year, with, on average, 17 of those animals being killed by motorists.

After automobile accidents, intraspecific aggression is responsible for the next largest number of panther deaths.

Puma concolor is a species which, after dispersal, does not normally come into contact with other panthers except to breed, or on the part of females, raise their young.

Male panthers will fight and attempt to kill other panthers that enter established territories. Kittens are also at risk from male panthers since their deaths will allow their mothers to breed again. On average, intraspecific aggression is responsible for around 6 panther deaths per year, that we know of.

MOUNTAIN LION MORTALITIES IN FLORIDA
1990 – AUGUST 28, 2012
 
TOTAL 207
Vehicular Trauma 154
Illegal Killing 7
Natural or Intraspecific Strife 90
Research 1
Unknown / Unspecified 45
Sport Hunting 0
Depredation 0
Public Safety 0
Wildlife Services 0

Habitat

Scientific Name: Puma concolor coryi

Note: The Florida panther was originally considered a subspecies of Puma concolor. Due to increased knowledge of the species, as well as advances in genetic research, scientists no longer consider the Florida panther as a unique subspecies though it still maintains the name.

Panther Habitat and Population in Florida

Many government agencies and NGOs assert that there are between 100 to 160 panthers residing in Florida. However, in 2008, a report by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission on the status of the Florida panther stated that the panther population was estimated to be approximately 100 animals and had remained at this level for several years. It was also implied that a large increase in population size was not expected or feasible because much of the available panther habitat in south Florida was currently occupied at capacity. The officially recognized capacity limits for the panther’s designated habitat zones only allow for the accommodation of a maximum of 84 animals.

While the Florida panther once roamed throughout many of the southeastern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina), it was hunted to extinction everywhere except in the remote southwest corner of Florida where it was protected from humans by the impenetrable Everglades swamp.

Today, an area just short of 2,200 square miles is essential habitat for the Florida panther. This habitat has been broken down into three distinct categories: primary, secondary, and dispersal.

Primary Zone

  • 918,000+ acres of natural and disturbed cover types.
  • Supports the only known breeding population.
  • Might support as many as 71 to 84 panthers.

Secondary Zone

  • 328,000+ acres immediately adjacent to the Primary Zone containing lower quality habitat.
  • Provides temporary habitat or refuge for panthers ranging outside the Primary Zone.
  • If restored, might be able to support 25 to 30 panthers, but current conditions could not support this.

Dispersal Zone

  • 150,000+ acres immediately north of the Caloosahatchee River.
  • Should function as a wildlife corridor to allow panthers to move out of south Florida.
  • Cannot support a permanent population.

Within the Florida panther’s remaining habitat, the species appear to prefer hardwood hammocks and pinelands. The saw palmetto plant is used extensively by panthers for resting, stalking prey, and as dens for young panthers.

Law

Generally, treatment of wildlife in the State of Florida is governed by the Florida Statutes – the state’s collection of all the laws passed by its legislature. Since our summary below may not be completely up to date, you should be sure to review the most current law for the State of Florida.

You can check the statutes directly at a state-managed website
These statutes are searchable. Be sure to use the name “panther” to accomplish your searches.

Florida’s wildlife regulations are set by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The commission’s regulations can be found here and are part of the Florida Administrative Code – the collection of all Florida’s agency rules. The regulations most pertinent to mountain lions can be found in https://www.flrules.org/gateway/Division.asp?DivID=347.

The Legislature

The Florida State Legislature is a full-time, bicameral legislative body. The lower chamber – the House of Representatives – consists of 120 members who serve 2-year terms. Representatives are limited to four terms. The Republican Party has controlled the Florida House of Representatives since 1997. The upper chamber – the Senate – is made up of 40 members who serve 4-year terms. Florida state senators are limited to two terms. The Republican Party has controlled the Florida Senate since 1995. Information on how to contact your member of the Florida House of Representatives can be found here, and information on how to contact your state senator can be found here.

The Constitution of the State of Florida governs when the legislature is to meet. Fourteen days after each general election, the legislature convenes in order to organize itself and elect officers. Regular sessions convene each year on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Regular sessions are limited to 60 consecutive days. Special sessions may be called by the governor or by the vote of three-fifths of the members of each chamber of the legislature. Special sessions are limited to 20 consecutive days unless three-fifths of the members of each chamber vote to extend the session.

Road Mortalities

Road mortalities are recorded in Florida and can be found by visiting Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission’s Florida Panther Pulse page.

Action

Calling all Citizen Scientists in Florida!

The Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) is investigating a disorder detected in some Florida panthers and bobcats. All the affected animals have exhibited some degree of walking abnormally or difficulty coordinating their back legs.

As of August 2019, the FWC has confirmed neurological damage in one panther and one bobcat. Additionally, trail camera footage has captured eight panthers (mostly kittens) and one adult bobcat displaying varying degrees of this condition. Videos of affected cats were collected from multiple locations in Collier, Lee and Sarasota counties, and at least one panther photographed in Charlotte County could also have been affected. The FWC has been reviewing videos and photographs from other areas occupied by panthers but to date the condition appears to be localized as it is only documented in three general areas.

“While the number of animals exhibiting these symptoms is relatively few, we are increasing monitoring efforts to determine the full scope of the issue.” said Gil McRae, director of FWC’s Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. “Numerous diseases and possible causes have been ruled out; a definitive cause has not yet been determined. We’re working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and a wide array of experts from around the world to determine what is causing this condition.”

The FWC is testing for various potential toxins, including neurotoxic rodenticide (rat pesticide), as well as infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies.

The public can help with this investigation by submitting trail camera footage or other videos that happen to capture animals that appear to have a problem with their rear legs. Files less than 10MB can be uploaded to our panther sighting webpage at MyFWC.com/PantherSightings. If you have larger files, please contact the FWC at Panther.Sightings@MyFWC.com.

For more information and FAQ’s regarding ongoing efforts to identify and manage the cause of this neurological disorder, visit: myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/wildlife/panther/disorder/.

Florida panthers are an endangered species native to Florida. To learn more about panthers, visit MyFWC.com/panther.

FWC asks public to help document disorder impacting panthers – YouTube

More About What’s Going on In Florida:

The Florida panther is the only known breeding population of mountain lions in the United States east of the Mississippi River. This tiny population survived early extermination by people due to the highly impenetrable Florida Everglades. It it also the only population with federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. In the 1980’s, the Florida panther population was down to only a few dozen inbred cats, and researchers released female lions from Texas to help bolster the population. Today, Florida panther numbers have rebounded, but their habitat continues to shrink; resulting in increased roadkill. With your help, we can raise awareness of these issues and increase the tools available to protect these animals.

No Roads to Ruin

According to No Roads to Ruin, “In 2019, the Florida state legislature passed a bill to authorize the design and construction of three new toll roads through the heart of rural Florida. If built, these new toll roads will destroy large swaths of Florida’s last remaining rural lands and communities, pollute waterways, and threaten endangered wildlife, including the iconic Florida panther.

The bill creating the Multi-use Corridors of Regional Economic Significance (M-CORES) was signed into law by Governor Ron DeSantis on May 17, 2019, despite a veto request from over 90 organizations and businesses from across Florida.”

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has reported that around 120-130 of the endangered panthers remain in the wild. On average, around 25 cats are struck and killed by vehicles each year. The added pressure from the development of the proposed toll roads would further jeopardize the panthers’ already marginal foothold in the state.

We are actively involved in the No Roads to Ruin campaign that is working to halt the development of the toll roads and instead preserving critical panther habitat. Learn more by visiting:  http://noroadstoruin.org/

Story Map

Coming soon!

Library

Florida Cougar Files Sorted by Type

Scientific Research

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  • Beach, V. (2000). Current Panther Distribution and Habitat Use A Review of Field Notes Fall 1999 – Winter 2000 by Roy McBride Contract Panther Hunter FWC Contract # 95128 Livestock Protection Company Alpine , Texas Prepared for?: Florida Panther SubTeam of MERIT US Fish and Wildlife Service South Florida Ecosystem Office.
  • Beier, P., Vaughan, M. R., Conroy, M. J., & Conroy, M. J. (2003). An Analysis of Scientific Literature Related to the Florida Panther FINAL REPORT An Analysis of Scientific Literature Related to the Florida Panther, (December).
  • Beier, P., Vaughan, M. R., Conroy, M. J., Quigley, H., Beier, P., Vaughan, M. R., … Quigley, H. (2003). An Analysis of Scientific Literature Related to the Florida Panther FINAL REPORT An Analysis of Scientific Literature Related to the Florida Panther, (December).
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  • Belden, R. C. (1988). The Florida Panther. Audobon Wildlife Report, (Goldman 1946).
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  • Clark, J. D., & Manen, F. T. Van. (2016). Florida Panther Habitat Use in Response to Prescribed Fire Author ( s ): Catherine S . Dees , Joseph D . Clark and Frank T . Van Manen Published by?: Wiley on behalf of the Wildlife Society Stable URL?: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3803287 Accessed?: 05-03-2016 22?: 54 UTC Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use , available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ info / about / policies / terms . jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars , researchers , and students discover , use , and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive . We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship . For more information about JSTOR , please contact support@jstor.org . Wiley and Wildlife Society are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize , preserve and extend access to The Journal of Wildlife All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions, 65(1), 141–147.
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  • Conroy, M. J., Survey, U. S. G., & Fish, G. C. (n.d.). Improving the Use of Science in Conservation?: Lessons from the Florida Panther, 1–7.
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  • Cox, J. (1971). Florida Panther Habitat Use?: New Approach to an Old Problem. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70(Craighead).
  • Cramer, P. C. (1999). Modeling Florida panther movements to predict conservation strategies in Northern Florida.
  • Cramer, P. C., & Portier, K. M. (2001). Modeling Florida panther movements in response to human attributes of the landscape and ecological settings, 140, 51–80.
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  • Culver, M., Hedrick, P. W., Murphy, K., Brien, S. O., & Hornocker, M. G. (2008). Estimation of the bottleneck size in Florida panthers, 11, 104–110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2007.00154.x
  • Decade, D. A. (2004). DISCREDITING A DECADE OF PANTHER SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS OF THE SCIENTIFIC, (January).
  • Dixon, J. D., Oli, M. K., Wooten, M. C., Eason, T. H., Cown, J. W. M. C., & Paetkau, D. (2006). Two Florida Black Bear Populations, 20(1), 155–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00292.x
  • Dunbar, M. R., Game, D. V. M. F., Water, F., & Commission, F. (1994). FLORIDA PANTHER BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS Florida Panther Conference- November 1994 Florida Panther Conference- November 1994, (November).
  • Facemire, C. F., Gross, T. S., & Guillette, L. J. (1995). Reproductive Impairment in the Florida Panther?: Nature or Nurture??, (8), 79–86.
  • Facemire, C. F., Gross, T. S., Guillette, L. J., Environmental, S., Perspectives, H., Wildlife, S., & May, D. (2015). Brogan & Partners Reproductive Impairment in the Florida Panther?: Nature or Nurture??, 103, 79–86.
  • Field, F., Mccown, J. W., Belde, R. C., & Frankenberger, W. B. (1989). Fates of Wild hogs released onto occupied Florida Panther home ranges, 17(2), 42–43.
  • Forrester, D. J., Conti, J. A., & Belden, R. C. (2011). Parasites of the Florida Panther ( Felis concolor coryi ), 52(1), 95–97.
  • Foster, M. L., Humphrey, S. R., Foster, M. L., & Humphrey, S. R. (2016). Use of highway underpasses by Florida panthers and other wildlife, 23(1), 95–100.
  • Game, F., Water, F., & Commission, F. (1998). Public Acceptability of Florida Panther Reintroduction Final Report.
  • Glass, C. M., Mclean, R. G., Katz, J. B., Maehr, D. S., Cropp, C. B., Kirk, L. J., … Evermann, F. (n.d.). ISOLATION OF PSEUDORABIES ( AUJESZKY â€TM S DISEASE ) VIRUS FROM A FLORIDA PANTHER, 30(2), 180–184.
  • Gross, L. (2005). Why Not the Best?? How Science Failed the Florida Panther, 3(9), 1525–1531. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030333
  • Gross, L. (2005). Why Not the Best?? How Science Failed the Florida Panther, 3(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030333
  • Hedrick, P. W. (1995). Gene Flow and Genetic Restoration?: The Florida Panther as a Case Study, 9(5), 996–1007.
  • In, W. D., & Everglades, T. H. E. (1994). WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE EVERGLADES, (November), 247–273.
  • Johnson, W. E. (2010). Genetic Restoration of the Florida Panther Warren E. Johnson, 1641. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1192891
  • Jordan, D. B. (1993). PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF Prepared by?:
  • Kautz, R., Kawula, R., Hoctor, T., Comiskey, J., Jansen, D., Jennings, D., … Root, K. (2005). How much is enough?? Landscape-scale conservation for the Florida panther, 0. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.12.007
  • Kerkhoff, A. J., Milne, B. T., & Maehr, D. S. (2000). Toward a Panther-centered View of the Forests of South Florida, 4(1), 1–34.
  • Knowles, B., Service, U. S. F., Kushlan, J. A., Service, N. P., Layne, J. N., & Station, A. B. (1981). Florida Panther Recovery Plan, (January).
  • Land, E. D. (1991). Big Cypress deer/panther relationships: deer mortality.
  • Land, E. D., Fish, F., Commission, W. C., & Boulevard, C. (2006). Florida Panther Habitat Selection Analysis of Concurrent GPS and VHF Telemetry Data, 633–639. https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-136
  • Land, E. D., Game, F., Water, F., & Commission, F. (n.d.). PANTHER USE OF THE SOUTHERN FLORIDA LANDSCAPE.
  • Locatioll, D. A. (n.d.). Mid 0.1.
  • Maebr, D. S., & Lacy, R. C. (2000). Avoid the lurking pitfalls in Florida panther recovery, 971–978.
  • Maehr, D. S. (1990). 09 Augus t 1990 David S. Maehr Florida.
  • Maehr, D. S. (1990). The Florida Panther and Private Lands, 4(2), 167–170.
  • Maehr, D. S. (1996). Comparative ecology of bobcat, black bear, and Florida Panther in Southern Florida.
  • Maehr, D. S. (2004). An analysis of a scientific publications related to the Florida Panther, (January).
  • Maehr, D. S., & Cox, J. A. (2016). Landscape Features and Panthers in Florida, 9(5), 1008–1019.
  • Maehr, D. S., Belden, R. C., Land, E. D., & Wilkins, L. (2015). IN SOUTHWEST OF PANTHERS FOOD HABITS, 54(3), 420–423.
  • Maehr, D. S., Caddick, G. B., & Biology, C. (2016). Society for Conservation Biology Demographics and Genetic Introgression in the Florida Panther Published by?: Wiley for Society for Conservation Biology Stable URL?: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2387067 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use , available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ info / about / policies / terms . jsp in a trusted digital archive . We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship . All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions, 9(5), 1295–1298.
  • Maehr, D. S., Darrellla, E., & Roof, A. D. J. C. (1991). Florida Panthers, 7(Figure 10).
  • Maehr, D. S., Game, F., Walter, F., Commission, F., & Blvd, C. (n.d.). Mortality Patterns of Panthers in Southwest Florida, (33).
  • Maehr, D. S., Land, E. D., Roof, J. C., Mccown, J. W., The, S., Midland, A., … Mccown, J. W. (2016). The University of Notre Dame Early Maternal Behavior in the Florida Panther ( Felis concolor coryi ) Stable URL?: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2425680 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use , available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions, 122(1), 34–43.
  • Maehr, D. S., Land, E. D., Shindle, D. B., Bass, O. L., & Hoctor, T. S. (2002). Florida panther dispersal and conservation, 106, 187–197.
  • Maehr, D. S., Roof, C., Darrell, E., & Mcbride, R. O. Y. T. (1992). HOME RANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF A PANTHER IN, 20(August 1987), 97–103.
  • Manen, F. T. Van, & Clark, J. D. (2016). Identifying Suitable Sites for Florida Panther Reintroduction Author ( s ): Cindy A . Thatcher , Frank T . Van Manen and Joseph D . Clark Published by?: Wiley on behalf of the Wildlife Society Stable URL?: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3803430 Accessed?: 05-03-2016 21?: 31 UTC Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use , available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ info / about / policies / terms . jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars , researchers , and students discover , use , and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive . We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship . For more information about JSTOR , please contact support@jstor.org . Wiley and Wildlife Society are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize , preserve and extend access to The Journal of Wildlife All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions, 70(3), 752–763.
  • Martenson, J. S., & Brien, S. J. O. (1993). The consequences of demographic genetic depletion in the endangered reduction and Florida panther.
  • Mcbride, R. (2001). Current Panther Distribution , Population Trends , and Habitat Use Report of Field Work?: Fall 2000 – Winter 2001 by, (November).
  • Monroe, M. C. (2003). Two Avenues for Encouraging Conservation Behaviors, 10(2), 113–125.
  • Munoz, P. (1990). THE DECLINE OF THE FLORIDA PANTHER.
  • Naturalist, S. (2002). LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION AND REGIONAL PLANNING FOR THE FLORIDA PANTHER, 1(3), 217–232.
  • Ohr, M., & Maehr, D. S. (1992). FLORIDA PANTHER DISTRIBUTION AND Study Number?: 7572.
  • Panther, F., & Commitiee, I. (1989). STATUS REPORT MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN FLORIDA PANTHERS PREPARED BY THE TECHNICAL SUBCOMMITIEE OF THE, (December).
  • Park, N. Z., Game, F., Water, F., & Commission, F. (1994). REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MALE FLORIDA PANTHERS?: COMPARATIVE STUDIES FROM FLORIDA , TEXAS , COLORADO , LATIN AMERICA , AND NORTH AMERICAN ZOOS, 75(1), 150–162.
  • Pimm, S. L., Dollar, L., & Jr, O. L. B. (2006). The genetic rescue of the Florida panther, 9, 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2005.00010.x
  • Plan, R. (n.d.). Florida Panther Recovery Plan.
  • Plan, S. (n.d.). Florida panther, (December 1989).
  • Population, S. F. (1993). HABITAT PRESERVATION, (November).
  • Potential, E. E., An, F. O. R., Species, E., & Florida, S. (2001). AND CONSERVATION PLANNING FOR THE FLORIDA PANTHER?: ENHANCING EXPANSION POTENTIAL FOR AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN, (August).
  • Recovery, R. T. O. (n.d.). Road to recovery.
  • Report, F., Wildlife, S., Title, F. P., Title, S., No, S., No, F., … Covered, P. (1992). No Title.
  • Robert, C. (1983). Florida panther recover plan implementation.
  • Safety, L. F., Panther, K., Away, P., Safe, K. P., Secure, K. L., Children, S., … Friend, H. W. A. (n.d.). If You Encounter A Panther?:
  • Smith, T. R. (1989). Smith and Bass panthers , estimated at 6-9 . Despite low numbers , the stability , productivity , and dispersal potential of panthers in Everglades National Park potentially makes significant contributions to the size , genetic diversity , and long-term conservation of a wild population in south Florida . Key words?: carrying capacity , distribution , Everglades , Florida panther , landscape , mountain lion Although Florida panthers ( Felis concolor coryi ) historically occurred throughout the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains of the southeastern United states ( Young and Goldman 1946 ), their distribution appeared to have been reduced to the Everglades region of south Flolrida by the mid-20th century ( Goldman 1946 , Tinsley 1970 ). Systematic investigation of observations and field sign Subsequently confirmed this assumption and indicated that , although panthers still were found across much of Florida , established , potentially viable ( sub ) populations of the species were limited to the Big Cypress Swamp and Everglades in the vicinity and south of Lake Okeechobee ( Schemni . tz 1974 , Layne and McCauley 1976 , Nowak and McBride 1976 , Belden 1978 , McBride 1985?; but see Belden and Williams 1976 ). Persistence of a panther population in the Big Cypress- Everglades ecosystem appears to be primarily related to the remote , largely protected nature of the area rather than its quality per se as panther habitat . Early students of the Subject maintained that the extirpation of panthers in Florida and.
  • Strand, F., Strand, F., Preserve, S., Cypress, B., Preserve, N., Seminole, C., … Mccown, W. (n.d.). Tracking Florida’s Panthers.
  • Taylor, S. K., Buergelt, C. D., Roelke-Pparker, M. E., Rotstein, D. S., & Homer, B. L. (2002). Causes of mortality of free-ranging Florida panther, 1976, 107–114.
  • Telford, L., Land, E. D., Lacy, R. C., Johnson, K., & Telford, L. (2000). Endangered Species Update, 17(5).
  • Tischendorf, J. (n.d.). A melanistic bobcat from outside Florida.
  • Wilkins, L., Museum, F., & Road, M. (1994). PRACTICAL CATS?: COMPARING CORY / TO OTHER COUGARS?: An analysis of variation in the Florida panther , Fe / is concolor coryi Florida Panther Conference – November 1994 Florida Panther Conference – November 1994, 1967(November).

Agency Reports

  • FLFGC. (1998). Public Acceptability of Florida Panther Reintroduction Final Report.
  • FLFGC. (2010). Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Statement on Estimating Panther Population Size, (December).
  • FLFGC. (2012). FL A FFWCC 2012 Panther Mortality and Injury List 1972-08282012.
  • FLFGC. (2014). FL A FFWCC 2014 PantherNet Mortality Data Compiled.
  • FLFGC. (n.d.). Florida, (3922).
  • FLFGC (1989). FEASIBILITY OF TRANSLOCATING.
  • USFWS. (1987). RECOVERY PLAN, (June).
  • USFWS. (1987). RECOVERY PLAN, (June).
  • USFWS. (1989). Annual Performance Report.
  • USFWS. (1989). Final Performance Report.
  • USFWS. (1991). GENETIC MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THREATENED SPECIES WITH A, (May).
  • USFWS. (1993). Annual Performance Report.
  • USFWS. (1993). HABITAT PRESERVATION PLAN.
  • USFWS. (1993). Participation Schedule of the Revise Florida Panther Recovery Plan, (February 1992).
  • USFWS. (1993). PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF Potential Florida Panther Reintroduction Sites.
  • USFWS. (2007). 2007 Interagency Florida Panther Response Team Report.
  • USFWS. (2011). Endangered Florida Panthers Have Good News from the Nursery, 44–46.
  • USFWS. (1967). Celebrate “Florida Panther” Week, (March 1967).
  • USFWS. (n.d.). GENETIC MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND POPULATION VIABILITY OF THE FLORIDA PANTHER.

Legal

Other

  • ABC-7 Widom. (2007). African Idea Keeping Southwest Florida Livestock Safe.
  • Associated Press 2007 Panther Found Dead on Orlando Highway.
  • Associated Press Crist Wants Advocate for Florida Panther.
  • CBS4 2007 14 Florida Panthers Killed on Roads.
  • Defenders of Wildlife 2007 Conservation Group Calls on Federal Agencies to Protect Critical Florida Panther Habitat.
  • Florida Sportsman 2005 Panther Incident Reported.
  • Florida Today. (n.d.). Crist wants advocate for Florida panther, p. 70211012.
  • Herald Tribune 2006 Year Deadliest for Florida Panther.
  • Herald Tribune Spinner 2007 Panther Corridor is in Path of Growth.
  • High Country News Larmer 1996 Utahns Roar Over Lion Hunt.
  • Ledger Online Associated Press 2007 Florida Panther Deaths on Roads Hit New High of 14.
  • Miami Herald Morgan 2007 Second Panther Hit by Car in South Dade.
  • Naples Daily News Cox 2007 Panther Focus Area Plan to Include Developed Areas.
  • Naples Daily News Cox 2007 Provide More Panther Land or Face Suit, Wildlife Group Warns Ave Maria.
  • Naples Daily News Cox 2007 Wildlife Officials Say Panther Concern Should Mean End of Road for Bypass.
  • Naples News 11th Panther Road Death Sets Grim Record.
  • Naples News 2006 Panther Death Toll Reaches 10.
  • Naples News 2007 Another Florida Panther Dies on Regional Roadway.
  • Naples News 2007 Naples Panther PR Position Left Out of Sate Budget.
  • Naples News 2007 Report Shows Increase in Human Contact with Florida Panthers.
  • Naples News 2007 Second Panther Killed in Almost Same Road Location.
  • Naples News 2007 Wildlife Service; Is Eastern Cougar Really Extinct.
  • Naples News 2008 Another Dead Panther Found in Collier.
  • Naples News 2008 Dead Panther Found in Big Cypress National Preserve.
  • Naples News Brannock 2007 Naples Zoo Kicks Off “Save the Panther Week.”
  • Naples News Clark Ochoa 2007 Panther Found up in a Tree in Golden Gate.
  • Naples News Cox 2006 Virile Panther “Doing Fine” at New Home.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 Dead Florida Panther on East Coast Means It’s Branching out.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 On the Edge, Florida Panthers Stand Close to Disappearing.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 Panther Killed on Interstate 4, is Sixth Big Cat Death of 2007.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 Pushed Out, Developments Pushing Panthers Farther from Their habitats.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 Speeding Kills, Number of Panthers Dying on Florida’s Roads Rising Every Year.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 Wildlife Group Offers Pens to Prevent Panther Attacks.
  • Naples News Cox 2007 Young Male Panther Finds Its Way into Keewaydin Island.
  • Naples News Cullinan 2007 Panther Hit, Killed on Corkscrew Road.
  • Naples News Gillis 2005 Judge Rules for More Panther Protection.
  • Naples News Souza 2007 Guest Commentary, Range of Efforts Necessary to Protect Florida Panther.
  • Naples News Staats 2005 Wildlife Group Says Minor Permits a Major Threat to Panther Habitat.
  • Naples News Staats 2006 Area of Critical State Concern Designation Was put in Place in 1973.
  • Naples News Staats 2007 Perserving Land, Collier Voters Supported Conservation, but Tax Cuts Looms.
  • Naples News Staats 2008 Panther Found in Rural Collier Died of Pneumonia.
  • Naples News Stackel 2007 Neighbors, Animal Lovers Team Up to Build Safety Pens in Estates.
  • Naples News Swall 2007 Our World, Another one.
  • Naples News Whitehead 2007 Environmental Group Says State Not Doing Enough to Save Panthers.
  • National Geographic News Mott 2005 Bad Science Led to Poor Panther Protection, Experts Say.
  • NBC2 News 2007 Africa Idea keeping SWFL Livestock Safe.
  • NBC2 News 2007 Panther on the Prowl.
  • NBC2 News 2007 Panther Sightings, Attacks on the Rise.
  • New Journal Online Pulver 2008 Officials Almost Certain Panther Prowling Tomoka State Park.
  • News Journal Online 2008 Officials Proclaim Day of the Panther.
  • News. (1985). On the trail of Florida’s elusive panther.
  • News. (2005). Errors admitted in panther data, 1900859.
  • News. (2005). Florida panther population growing due to controversial plan Duke University release August 18, 2005, pp. 18–21.
  • News. (2007). Dead Florida panther on east coast means its branching out.
  • News. (2007). Florida Panther Deaths on Roads Hit New High of 14, p. 20070630.
  • News. (2007). National Parks Conservation Association Says Big Cypress National Preserve Is Threatened By Damaging Off-Road Vehicle Use.
  • News. (2007). Panther Kills Farm Animal Threatens Ten Year Old Boy.
  • News. (2007). Report shows increase in human contact with Fla . panthers, p. 2007.
  • News. (2011). Crossbreeding to save species and create new ones, 1–5.
  • News. (2011). Panthers making a precarious recovery in the wildlands of Florida, 4–7.
  • News. (2011). Panther Deaths are a Mystery, 9–10.
  • News. (2011). The panther’s shrinking backyard, 1–6.
  • News. (n.d.). FL A USFWS 2007 Celebrate “Florida Panther” Week in Naples.
  • News. (n.d.). FL O Maehr 2004 MEMORANDUM Review of An Analysis of Scientific Publications Related to the Florida Panther.
  • News-Press Wozniak 2008 Collier Debate Brews over Town, Panthers. (n.d.).
  • Orlando Sentinel Spear 2007 Panther Roamed Far From Home.
  • Orlando Sentinel 2006 Suburbs Threaten Panthers.
  • Orlando Sentinel 2006 Suburbs Threaten Panthers.
  • Orlando Sentinel Comas 2007 Shedding Light on Elusive Panther.
  • Orlando Sentinel Shedding Light on Elusive Panther.
  • Orlando Sentinel Spear 2007 Panther Roamed Far From Home.
  • Palm Beach Post King 2005 Panther Biologist Now Fights for Job.
  • Scott 2007 Florida Panther Deaths Increase from Collisions with Vehicles.
  • Sun Sentinal Fleshler 2005 U. (n.d.).
  • Tampabay10. (n.d.).
  • TBO Sargeant 2007 Florida’s Wild Cat. (n.d.).
  • The Florida Times-Union Skoloff 2006 Florida Panthers Threatened as Development Takes Habitat. (n.d.).
  • The Floridian Klinkenberg 2007 The Uninvited Guest. (n.d.).
  • UPI 2010 Panther Protection Lucrative for Florida Ranchers. (n.d.).
  • Washington Post Whoriskey 2006 Florida Cat’s Revival Raises Concerns in Suburbia. (n.d.).
  • WFTV 2007 Florida Panther Struck and Killed on Fort Myers Road. (n.d.).
  • Wink News 2008 Mountain Lion Attacks a Little Boy. (n.d.).
  • WPBF 2007 Panther Expert Called After Toddler Found Mauled. (n.d.).
  • WPTV Sheldone Stancil 2007 Beast that Mauled 3-year-old Boy in Fort Drum Lkiely Wasn’t Panther. (n.d.).