Half Dome in California's Yosemite National Park
 

MOUNTAIN LIONS IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA

Mountain lion field research and population estimates have come a long way in the last few decades. Most biologists now agree on an average lion population density of 1.7 lions per 100 sq km of habitat. In California (~185,000 sq km of habitat), that equates to approximately 3,100 resident mountain lions for the entire state. Marc Kenyon, CDFG's Bear and Lion Coordinator recently (2012) gave credence to that estimate when he stated that California's lion "population size is, in fact, smaller than it was 10 years ago." He attributed this decrease to dwindling lion habitat and the hunting policies in surrounding states. He estimates California's statewide lion population to be approximately 4,000 animals and dropping.

SUMMARY: Mountain Lions in the State of California




Mountain Lion Habitat and Population in California

The state of California encompasses 155,959 square miles of land. Of this, an estimated 71,117 square miles, or 46 percent of the state is considered to be suitable mountain lion habitat. This habitat is distributed throughout the state except for the Central Valley and much of the southeastern deserts.

Since 1972, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) has claimed that there are approximately 4,000 to 6,000 lions residing in California. This rough estimate is based on what CDFG admits is only a "guesstimate," and is clearly too high and outdated.

CDFG originally based their crude population estimate on a series of studies which estimated lion population densities for different habitat types around the state. These density estimates varied from zero to 10 lions per 100 square miles, and were simply extrapolated to accommodate the total amount of available habitat type.

Mountain lion field research and population estimates have come a long way in the last few decades. Most biologists now agree on an average lion population density of 1.7 lions per 100 sq km of habitat. In California (~185,000 sq km of habitat), that equates to approximately 3,100 resident mountain lions for the entire state.

Marc Kenyon, CDFG's Bear and Lion Coordinator recently (2012) gave credence to that estimate when he stated that California's lion "population size is, in fact, smaller than it was 10 years ago." He attributed this decrease to dwindling lion habitat and the hunting policies in surrounding states. He estimates California's statewide lion population to be approximately 4,000 animals and dropping.

Unfortunately, statewide mountain lion population estimates cannot properly indicate the health of the species. According to noted lion researcher Dr. Rick Hopkins, "It is important to keep in mind that no western state, including California, supports one cougar population. There are several populations in the state that react to changes in their environment independent of one another. It is unrealistic to assume that a statewide population of any species, let alone the cougar, is responding in a similar fashion at the same time. For example, the intense development pressure that the population of cougars is experiencing in Orange County is in no way relevant to what is happening in Humboldt County."

History of Mountain Lion Management in California

Historically, mountain lions were heavily persecuted in California. Classified as a "bountied predator" from 1907 to 1963, a record 12,462 mountain lions were killed (more than any other state) and turned in for the bounty. The bounty on California's mountain lions was repealed in 1963, and the species was reclassified as a "non-protected mammal."

In 1969, the state legislature again reclassified mountain lions as a "game mammal." This action was undertaken to control supposed livestock damage and to "manage" mountain lions through regulated hunting.



In 1971 and 1972 California held its only regulated lion-hunting seasons, during which time 118 mountain lions were killed for sport.

In 1971, the state legislature passed new legislation, signed by then governor, Ronald Reagan which placed a moratorium on the sport hunting of mountain lions. The lion hunting moratorium, which started on March 1, 1972, was maintained until 1986 at which time the regulated hunting of mountain lions was once again authorized. Despite this authorization, political pressure from individual citizens and conservation organizations such as the Mountain Lion Foundation (MLF) kept lions from being hunted for sport in California over the next four years.

In 1990, a coalition of conservation organizations, including MLF, placed Proposition 117 — commonly known as the "mountain lion initiative — on the statewide ballot. This proposition, the first to have been placed solely with signatures collected by volunteers in California, passed on June 5, 1990 with 52.42 percent of the vote. Officially known as the , Proposition 117 reclassified mountain lions in California as a "specially protected mammal," permanently banned the sport hunting of lions in the state, and allocated $30 million to be spent annually for 30 years on the acquisition of critical habitat for mountain lions, deer, oak woodlands, endangered species, riparian habitat, and other wildlife.

In 1996, trophy-hunting proponents got the state legislature to place Proposition 197 on the March primary ballot. Drafted in part by the Safari Club, this initiative was presented to voters under the guise of "public safety" concerns in an effort to overturn the ban on killing mountain lions for recreational purposes. Proposition 197 was overwhelmingly rejected by 58.12 percent of California's voters.

 

Since the 1996 failure to repeal the State's lion-hunting ban, there have been numerous unsuccessful attempts by lawmakers to introduce legislation that would overturn Proposition 117's lion-hunting restrictions.

 

At this time, California has no formal management plan for mountain lions. State law requires CDFG to issue a depredation permit against any offending lion, if a resident requests one and there is proof that the mountain lion has preyed on or threatened domestic animals or private property. Mountain lions can also be killed at any time if deemed a threat to the public's safety.


On September 6, 2013, California Governor Jerry Brown signed Senate Bill 132 into law. This groundbreaking legislation (effective January 1, 2014), protects lions that accidentally wander into human-populated areas. Law Enforcement and Wildlife Officers can only kill a lion if it is posing an imminent threat to human life: exhibiting aggressive behavior towards a person that is not due to the presence of first responders.

The new law (F&G Code 4801.5) also allows CDFW to partner with qualified individuals, educational institutions, government agencies, or nongovernmental organizations to implement nonlethal procedures on a mountain lion which include rescue and rehabilitation.

Human-Caused Mountain Lion Mortalities in California

Since 1907 (the first year data is available) an estimated 15,951 mountain lions have been killed by humans in California. This figure does not include:

  • lion deaths from road accidents,

  • secondary poisoning,

  • kittens or injured adults euthanized by CDFG,

  • death by unknown causes,

  • poaching,
  • and "shoot-shovel-and-shut up" practice espoused by some ranchers.


Most of these deaths (12,462) occurred prior to 1963 while mountain lions were considered a bountied predator.

Bounty Period 1907-1963 12,462
1971-72 Hunting Period 118
Depredation Kills 1964-1990 602
Depredation Kills 1991-2013 2,542
Bighorn Sheep Program 1999-2010 22
Public Safety Kills 1990-2013 144
Other / Unspecified 61
Total 15,951



Since the passage of Proposition 117, it is estimated that 2,542 mountain lions have been killed in California as a result of issued Depredation Permits, and 144 lions killed for public safety reasons.

California's Killing Fields

Based on a lion-mortality density model developed by the Mountain Lion Foundation, California averages 0.16 mountain lions reported killed by humans for every 100 square miles of habitat. The eleven western state average is 0.65. Using MLF's mortality ranking system, California ranks 11th (least deadly) amongst the 11 states studied by MLF in reported human-caused mountain lion mortalities.

 

Depredation related occurrences account for 94 percent of all reported human-caused mountain lion mortalities in California. Notably, "hobby-farm" animals, such as sheep and goats, are currently the most common type of domestic animal involved in human-lion conflicts. According to one California Fish and Game Warden, who has had to kill numerous lions on depredation permits, the number of lions killed in California could be reduced by at least 50 percent if people properly protected their domestic animals.

 
Graph of human-caused mountain lion mortality in California.


Last Update: April 2014

The Day the Safety Net Failed

04/20/10 Amy Rodrigues, MLF Outreach Coordinator

Two mountain lion kittens have exposed a gaping hole in mountain lion protection policies. California still has much work to do before lions will truly be "specially protected." The ban on recreational hunting was only a first step. Remaining on the "to-do" list: clarifying policies and facilitating communication between the state Department of Fish & Game, wildlife rescue groups, and the public.

Mountain Lion Law in the State of California


In California's legal code, Puma concolor is generally referred to as "mountain lion."

Species Status

The species is classified as a specially protected mammal. The mountain lion is the only species in California with this designation, and at this time there is no directive explaining how specially protected mammals should be conserved.

Under California Fish and Game Code Section 3950.1, which became law in 1990 through Proposition 117, the mountain lion "shall not be listed as, or considered to be, a game mammal by the department or the commission."

Laws pertaining to California's threatened and endangered species currently do not apply to the mountain lion because the species has not been listed. The mountain lion is also not included as a fully protected mammal, or nongame mammal in California.


State Law and Regulation

Generally, treatment of wildlife in the State of California is governed by the California Fish and Game Code and Title 14 of the California Code of Regulations. Additionally, state and local agencies are subject to the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) under the Public Resources Code. Some federal laws also apply to California wildlife, but usually in conjunction with migratory birds or federally-listed endangered species. Since our summary below may not be completely up to date, you should be sure to review the most current laws and regulations for the State of California.

The California Fish and Game Code (state law) may be viewed online here. These statutes are searchable. Be sure to use the name "mountain lion" to accomplish your searches. The California Code of Regulations (state regulations), may be viewed online here, or click here to see every CCR section that mentions "mountain lion."

California's State Capitol Building in Sacramento.
Courtesy JoshM, creative commons.

The Legislature

The California State Legislature is the state's legislative entity. It is a bicameral legislature. The upper chamber is the Senate while the Assembly is the lower chamber. The Senate has 40 members who serve 4-year terms. Twenty Senate seats are up for election during each two-year election cycle. The Assembly is made up of 80 members who serve 2-year terms.

In June 2012, voters passed Proposition 28 which allows members of either chamber to serve a maximum of 12 years total in the legislature. Legislators who were first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are limited to the previous term limits (under 1990's Proposition 140) — three terms in the Assembly and two terms in the Senate.

California's directory of Senators can be found here, and the directory of state Assemblymembers can be found here.

California's legislature is in session year-round, and convenes on the first Monday in January, except when New Year's Day (January 1) falls on a Sunday or Monday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.

The Senate has been under Democratic majority continuously since 1970. With the exception of 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 as well. The Governor's seat has alternated back and forth between republican and democrat during that time period.


California Department of Fish and Wildlife

California Fish and Wildlife Regions
California Department of Fish and Wildlife's 7 regions.
Courtesy CDFW.

California's laws and regulations (explained above) set the framework for mountain lion treatment in the state. The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) uses these official statues to frame their internal mountain lion policies and guidelines. CDFW is the agency responsible for mountain lion management in California.

CDFW is divided into four major divisions: administration, wildlife & fisheries, ecosystem conservation, and law enforcement. Mountain lion management falls under the wildlife and fisheries, and law enforcement divisions.

There are 7 CDFW regions in California. The Department is responsible for implementing and enforcing the regulations set by the Fish and Game Commission, as well as providing biological data and expertise to inform the Commission's decision making process.


California Fish and Game Commission

The California Fish and Game Commission was the first wildlife conservation agency in the United States, founded in 1870, predating even the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Their general regulations are outlined in the California Code of Regulations, Title 14, Division 1 and Fish and Game Code Division 1. Their rule-making process must also be in compliance with the Administrative Procedures Act. Today, the Commission oversees the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

CDFW annually reports to the California Fish and Game Commission (CFGC) on the status of California's fish and wildlife resources with emphasis on those resources estimated to be at marginal or low levels. In accordance with CCR §660.1, "based upon the best scientific information, [...] the Commission shall then prepare a report on the status of the State's resources for presentation to the Senate Resources & Wildlife Committee and the Assembly Water, Parks & Wildlife Committee."

The California Fish and Game Commission has a wide range of responsibilities that continually expands and includes:

  • Formulation of general policies for the conduct of the Department of Fish and Wildlife
  • Seasons, bag limits and methods of take for game animals, sport fishing and some commercial fishing
  • Controlling non-native species importation, possession, sale
  • Establishing protected lands/waters (marine protected areas, wildlife areas and ecological reserves.)
  • Regulating uses of protected areas
  • Listing and delisting of threatened/endangered species under California Endangered Species Act
  • Accepting mitigation lands on behalf of the State
  • Leasing State water-bottom for shellfish cultivation
  • Leasing kelp beds for harvest
  • Authorizing terms and conditions for Private Lands Management Program
  • Assuming a quasi-judicial role in considering appeal hearings for revocation or suspension of licenses and permits
  • Prescribing terms and conditions for issuance, suspension, revocation of licenses/permits issued by the Department

Commissioners are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the California state Senate. They serve a six-year term that expires on January 15. After completing a term, Commissioners can be reappointed, or may continue to serve until the Governor appoints a replacement. The Commission must annually elect one of its members as President and one as Vice President.

The CFGC holds twelve meetings a year at various locations throughout the state to encourage public participation. Under the Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act of 1967, which facilitates accountability and transparency of government activities and protects the rights of citizens to participate in State government deliberations, Commission meetings are open to the public.

In regards to mountain lions, (FGC §4807), the California Department of Fish and Wildlife "shall undertake a complete necropsy on any returned mountain lion carcass and report the findings to the commission. The commission shall compile the reported findings and prepare an annual written report that shall be submitted to the Legislature not later than the January 15 next following the year in which the mountain lion was taken."


Hunting Law

Historically, mountain lions were heavily persecuted in California, classified as a "bountied predator" from 1907 to 1963. During this time, a record 12,462 mountain lions were killed (more than any other state) and turned in for the bounty. The bounty on California's mountain lions was repealed in 1963, and the species was reclassified as a "non-protected mammal." In 1969, the state legislature again reclassified mountain lions as a "game mammal." In 1971 and 1972 California held its only sport hunting seasons on mountain lions, during which time 118 lions were killed.

In 1971, the state legislature and Governor Ronald Reagan passed legislation which placed a moratorium on the sport hunting of mountain lions. The lion hunting moratorium started on March 1, 1972.

Hunting or trapping of mountain lions is not allowed in the State of California. Since Ronald Reagan's moratorium in 1972, (made permanent by the passage of Proposition 117 in 1990), it has been unlawful to take (hunt, pursue, catch, capture, or kill, or attempt to hunt, pursue, catch, capture, or kill), injure, possess, transport, import, or sell any mountain lion or any part or product thereof unless under specific circumstances for public safety, depredation, education, or research.

CCR §265 (3) states "Mountain lions may not be pursued with dogs except under the provisions of a depredation permit issued pursuant to §4803 of the Fish and Game Code. Bear or bobcat may not be pursued with dogs except under the provisions of a permit issued pursuant to sections 3960.2 or 3960.4 of the Fish and Game Code. Dog training on mountain lions is prohibited." Pursuit with dogs may also be authorized for scientific research projects.


Public Safety Policy

A mountain lion may only be killed in California if it is posing an "imminent threat to public health or safety," which is defined as "a situation where a mountain lion exhibits one or more aggressive behaviors directed toward a person that is not reasonably believed to be due to the presence of responders."

Under FGC §4801.5 (which became law January 1, 2014 after the passage of Senate Bill 132), any situation where a mountain lion does not meet the threshold of imminent threat shall be handled with nonlethal procedures.

"Nonlethal procedures" means procedures that may include, but are not limited to, capturing, pursuing, anesthetizing, temporarily possessing, temporarily injuring, marking, attaching to or surgically implanting monitoring or recognition devices, providing veterinary care, transporting, hazing, rehabilitating, releasing, or taking no action.

Additionally, CDFW may, as the department determines is necessary to protect mountain lions or the public, authorize qualified individuals, educational institutions, governmental agencies, or nongovernmental organizations to implement nonlethal procedures on a mountain lion.

An individual is not guilty of a violation of this section if it is demonstrated that, in taking or injuring a mountain lion, the individual was acting in self-defense or in defense of others. Please see the Poaching section below for information about penalties for illegally killing a mountain lion in California.


Depredation Law

California's mountain lion depredation laws are described in FGC §4802-4809, and CCR§402 and §265.

Under FGC §4802, "any person, or the employee or agent of a person, whose livestock or other property is being or has been injured, damaged, or destroyed by a mountain lion may report that fact to the department and request a permit to take the mountain lion." Within 48 hours CDFW will investigate, and if "satisfied that there has been depredation by a mountain lion as reported, the department shall promptly issue a permit to take the depredating mountain lion" (FGC §4803).

A depredation permit to take a mountain lion expires 10 days after issuance, requires the permit holder begin pursuit of the lion not more than one mile from the depredation site, and limits the pursuit of the depredating mountain lion to within a 10-mile radius from the location of the reported damage or destruction. Additional depredation permit information and restrictions are described in CCR §402, and §265 allows the use of tracking dogs.

Any person issued a permit pursuant to Section 4803 or 4805 shall report, by telephone within 24 hours, the capturing, injuring, or killing of any mountain lion to an office of the department or, if telephoning is not practicable, in writing within five days after the capturing, injuring, or killing of the mountain lion. At the time of making the report of the capturing, injuring, or killing, the holder of the permit shall make arrangements to turn over the mountain lion or the entire carcass of the mountain lion which has been recovered to a representative of the department and shall do so in a timely manner.

A mountain lion caught in the act of attacking livestock or situations where "immediate authorization will materially assist in the pursuit of the particular mountain lion believed to be responsible for the depredation reported pursuant to §4802, the department or the animal damage control officer may orally authorize the pursuit and taking of the depredating mountain lion, and the department shall issue a written permit for the period previously authorized as soon as practicable after the oral authorization."

FGC §4809 specifies mountain lions authorized to be taken for causing damage or destruction shall be taken by the most effective means available, except that no mountain lion shall be taken by means of poison, leg-hold or metal-jawed traps, and snares.

CDFW is also required to undertake a complete necropsy on any returned mountain lion carcass and report the findings to the commission. These findings are to be included in an annual written report that shall be submitted to the Legislature by January 15. Past reports do not appear to be easily accessible online. CDFW's depredation information is available on the mountain lion page of their website. The United States Department of Agriculture's Wildlife Services agency is contracted in most California counties to kill lions under depredation permits. Wildlife Services' records are available online, here. Scroll down and click on the pie chart under the "Animals Dispersed / Killed or Euthanized / Freed" section, then in the dropdown menu select "California" to the see the number of mountain lions and other wildlife killed annually by Wildlife Services.


Research

Mountain lion research in California is authorized under FGC §4810 and permitted through the Scientific Collecting Permit process.

To qualify for a mountain lion scientific collecting permit, a project must be designed to:

  1. Contribute to the knowledge of natural wildlife ecosystems.
  2. Minimize disruptions in the lives and movements of mountain lions and other wildlife, as well as impacts to mountain lion or other wildlife habitat, while maintaining the permitholder's research objectives.
  3. Directly or indirectly support the sustainability and survival of mountain lion populations and healthy ecosystems.
  4. Prevent the permanent injury or killing of any mountain lion.

Researchers are allowed to pursue, capture, temporarily possess, temporarily injure, mark, attach to or surgically implant monitoring or recognition devices in, provide veterinary care to, and transport, mountain lions, or any part or product of a mountain lion. They must follow the reporting guidelines outlined in §4810(e).

CDFW shall notify the public at least 30 days prior to the issuance of a permit, and, upon request, shall make available to the public copies of the permit and annual and final reports.

Any mountain lion killed during a research project must be turned over to CDFW for a complete necropsy and included in the Commissions annual report to the Legislature.

Currently approved research projects are listed here. And any proposed research projects that are in the 30-day public review period can be found here.

Additional information and research application links are available on CDFW's mountain lion research permitting webpage. A handful of published studies can be found on their mountain lion research publications page. Long-term studies have taken place in the Santa Ana Mountains and Santa Monica Mountains. More recent studies are also being conducted in the Santa Cruz Mountains, San Francisco's East Bay, and the Sierra National Forest.


Possessing Dead Lions or Lion Parts

It is unlawful to possess a mountain lion carcass, part, or product in California unless one of the following circumstances are met:

  1. The owner can demonstrate that the mountain lion, or part or product thereof, was in the person's possession on June 6, 1990 (before the mountain lion became a specially protected mammal in the state).
  2. The carcass or carcass part or product is prepared or being prepared for display, exhibition, or storage, for a bona fide scientific or educational purpose, at a nonprofit museum or government-owned facility generally open to the public or at an educational institution, including a public or private postsecondary institution. In addition, the mountain lion was taken in California consistent with the requirements of FGC §4800-4810 and any other applicable law. And, the department has authorized the possession of the carcass or carcass part or product for the purposes of this paragraph. For more information about mountain lion educational displays, see CCR §251.4
  3. California Department of Fish and Wildlife authorized the killing of the mountain lion for posing an imminent threat to public health or safety, and the carcass is being transferred to CDFW for a necropsy.
  4. California Department of Fish and Wildlife authorized the killing of the mountain lion under a depredation permit, and the carcass is being transferred to CDFW for a necropsy.
  5. The carcass or lion part or product is a component of a mountain lion research project under a Scientific Collecting Permit approved in compliance with FGC §4810.

Possessing Live Lions

According to CCR §251.5 (b), "Live mountain lions may be possessed only under terms of a permit issued by the Department pursuant to section 2150 of the Fish and Game Code or if the owner can demonstrate that the mountain lion was in his/her possession on or before June 6, 1990 under a permit issued pursuant to section 3200 of said code.

CCR §671-671.9 describe the regulations for importation, transportation, and possession of live restricted animals in California.

Mountain lion rescue and rehabilitation became legal in California on January 1, 2014. Laws pertaining to wildlife rehabilitation in California are generally listed under CCR §679.

Mountain lion researchers with a valid Scientific Collecting Permit, in accordance with §4810 may also temporarily possess live mountain lions. And an individual or organization partnering with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife to implement nonlethal procedures on a mountain lion to resolve a potential pubic safety threat (§4801.5) may also be allowed to temporarily possess a live lion.


Relationship of Mountain Lions to Native Prey

While historic native prey for mountain lions, declines in Bighorn sheep populations have led to a debate over lethally removing mountain lions to increase the size of sheep herds. Under California state law, Fish and Game Code §4801, CDFW "may remove or take any mountain lion, or authorize an appropriate local agency with public safety responsibility to remove or take any mountain lion, [...] that is perceived by the department to be an imminent threat to the survival of any threatened, endangered, candidate, or fully protected sheep species."

California Department of Fish and Wildlife map of bighorn sheep herds.
Courtesy CDFW.

The Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Recovery Program lethally removes approximately two mountain lions each year that are believed to be threatening the survival of the endangered Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep herd. In their 2011 report, the recovery program noted "Since bighorn were listed in 1999, 22 mountains lions were killed to protect them; 18 had preyed upon bighorn. Four were killed because their location data indicated a significant threat to bighorn."

A Legislative Counsel opinion released in 2011 clarified that Federal contract hunters employed by CDFW must follow state law and not use poison, snares, leg-hold or metal-jawed traps to kill mountain lions, even when the lions pose a threat to Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep.

Desert bighorn sheep that are not endangered may be sport hunted in specific areas.


Poaching

California state law provides some protection of mountain lions, but only as a deterrent. It is rare for penalties to be sufficiently harsh to keep poachers from poaching again. Violating FGC §4800-4810 or killing a mountain lion is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one year, or a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. An individual is not guilty of a violation of this section if it is demonstrated that, in taking or injuring a mountain lion, the individual was acting in self-defense or in defense of others.


Road Mortalities

The California Department of Transportation does not keep records of mountain lions killed on the State's roads. The UC Davis Road Ecology Center researches wildlife road killings in the California, but relies on the public to voluntarily report roadkill observations.



Last Update: June 9, 2014

CLICK TO VIEW DOCUMENTS ABOUT COUGARS IN CALIFORNIA


California Fish and Game Code 4800-4810 - Mountain Lions - January 2014

California Fish and Wildlife's Mountain Lion Interaction Guidelines - March 2013

California SB 132 MLF Letter of Support

California Senate Bill 132 - Mountain Lion Public Safety - Sen. Jerry Hill 2013

CA Assembly Bill 2402 Changes to the California Fish and Game Department and Commission September 2012

CA Assembly Bill 2609 Changes to the Structure of the California Fish and Game Commission September 2012

California CDFG Public Safety Wildlife Guidelines 2072 - INACTIVE

After the Hunt: Challenges Facing California's Mountain Lion

Biological Status of Mountain Lion in California - Fitzhugh - Gorenzel 1986

California - 1990- June 5 Primary - Statement of Vote

California 1996-March 26 Primary - Statement of Vote

California 2000 Census Report

California  2008 Mountain Lion Status Report - Proceedings from the 9th Mountain Lion Workshop

California - Human Population Projections 2005-2020

California - Public Safety Kills

California - CA SB769 MLF Letter of Support

California - Verified Mountain Lion Attacks on Humans

Changing Status of Mountain Lion in CA & Livestock Depredation Problems - Weaver 1978

Community Conservation of California Mountain Lions

Investigations on the Status of California Mountain Lion - Sitton 1972

Mountain Lion Predation on Livestock in California - Sitton 1978

Trends in Mountain Lion Depredation and Public Safety Threats in California - Mansfield - Torres 1994

California Assembly Bill 1784 - Mountain Lion Research - Monning 2012

California SB 1221 MLF Letter of Support

America's Lion Biology & Behavior Poster 11"x17" - California

Why You Should Oppose the Closure of California's State Game Refuges

Mountain Lion Foundation Comment on Proposed Closure of California Game Refuges

Public Comments on Proposed Closure of California Game Refuges